We describe Candida caseinolytica, a new yeast species which occurs in rotting tissues of opuntias and other cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert and a few other localities. This small-celled, slowly growing yeast does not ferment any sugar and assimilates a limited number of carbon compounds, including 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids. It exhibits strong extracellular proteolytic activity on casein at pH 6.5, but gelatin is not hydrolyzed or is only weakly hydrolyzed by a few strains. The type strain of C. caseinolytica is strain UCD-FST 83-438.3 (= ATCC 90546 = CBS 7781).
The qualitative and quantitative monosaccharide spectra of purified yeast cell walls revealed that there are three phylogenetically distinct lineages of sterigma-forming basidiomycetous yeasts: (i) Kurtzmanomyces and Sterigmatomyces species, which contain high levels of mannose; (ii) Tilletiopsis species, which contain glucose, galactose, and small amounts of mannose; and (iii) Fellomyces, Kockovaella, Sterigmatosporidium, and Tsuchiyaea species, which appear to be closely related on the basis of their high levels of glucose and the presence of xylose. The yeast cell wall neutral sugars of Sporobolomyces antarcticus and Sterigmatomyces aphidis were similar to those of members of the genus Tilletiopsis. However, the possibility that these taxa are conspecific was eliminated by the results of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The conspecificity of Mrakia frigida and Mrakia nivalis, the conspecificity of Mrakia gelida and Mrakia stokesii, and the conspecificity of Sterigmatomyces halophilus and Sterigmatomyces indicus were confirmed by RAPD analysis results. RAPD analysis was found to be a simple and highly sensitive method which can be used to differentiate species at the DNA level; it can replace nuclear DNA-nuclear DNA hybridization experiments for species identification, characterization, and delimitation.
Several strains of the four sibling species of the genus Saccharomyces (S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. pastorianus) were characterized by using a rapid and simple method of restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Patterns obtained with four-cutter endonucleases (such as AluI, DdeI, HinfI, and RsaI) made it possible to differentiate each species. S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus presented a greater number of large fragments than S. pastorianus and S. bayanus with all the assay enzymes. With AluI and DdeI, species-specific bands clearly permitted differentiation between S. pastorianus and S. bayanus. To test the resolution of this method, wild Saccharomyces strains were analyzed. The correct assignment of these strains to a known taxon by this rapid method was confirmed by means of electrophoretic karyotyping.
Partial 26S ribosomal DNA sequences of species assigned to the genera Hanseniaspora, Kloeckera, Dekkera, Brettanomyces, and Eeniella were determined. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that the genus Eeniella is derived within the genus Brettanomyces and that the genus Hanseniaspora (anamorph Kloeckera) is not closely related to the genus Dekkera (anamorph Brettanomyces). As a consequence, the name Eeniella is reduced to synonymy with the name Brettanomyces. In addition, our data do not support reassignment of certain Hanseniaspora species to the recently revived genus Kloeckeraspora.
A comparative electrophoretic karyotyping study was performed with several certified authentic strains of the four species that could be distinguished by nuclear DNA (nDNA)-nDNA reassociation data within the sensu stricto group of the genus Saccharomyces. A multivariate analysis of the polymorphisms observed in pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiles (numbers and molecular weights of separated units) revealed that the strains could be separated into four clusters that corresponded to the taxa that were distinguished on the basis of nDNA comparisons. Discrepancies between nDNA reassociation data and membership in the corresponding clusters were observed only with two strains of Saccharomyces paradoxus. Blind tests carried out with additional industrial strains confirmed the general validity of the statistical model created for comparison of karyotypes within the species included in Saccharomyces sensu stricto.
Some Candida species which can use methanol as a sole carbon source were studied by performing chemotaxonomic tests; we determined the ubiquinone systems of these organisms, their DNA base compositions, their electrophoretic karyotypes, and their DNA relatedness values. The type strains of Candida methanolophaga and Candida succiphila had similar DNA base compositions and exhibited 90% DNA relatedness. All Candida boidinii and Candida methylica strains had DNA G+C contents of 30.8 to 31.0 mol%, and these organisms exhibited 87 to 101% DNA relatedness to the type strain of C. boidinii. We propose that C. methanolophaga and C. methylica should be synonyms of C. succiphila and C. boidinii, respectively.