A polyphasic taxonomic study was undertaken to clarify relationships within and between representative thermophilic alkalitolerant streptomycetes isolated from soil and appropriate marker strains. The resultant data, notably those from DNA-DNA relatedness studies, support the taxonomic integrity of the validly described species Streptomyces thermodiastaticus, Streptomyces thermoviolaceus and Streptomyces thermonvulgaris. However, the genotypic and phenotypic data clearly show that Streptomyces thermonitrificans Desai and Dhala 1967 and S. thermovulgaris (Henssen 1957) Goodfellow et al. 1987 represent a single species. On the basis of priority, S. thermonitrificans is a later subjective synonym of of S. thermovulgaris. Similarly, 10 out of the 11 representative thermophilic alkalitolerant isolates had a combination of properties consistent with their classification as S. thermovulgaris. The remaining thermophilic alkalitolerant isolate, Streptomyces strain TA56, merited species status. The name Streptomyces thermoalcalitolerans sp. nov. is proposed for this strain. A neutrophilic thermophilic isolate, Streptomyces strain NAR85, was identified as S. thermodiastaticus.
Scotochromogenic mycobacterial isolates from water-damaged parts of indoor building materials of a children's day care centre represented a phenetically and genetically distinct group of strains. A 16S rDNA dendrogram (1243 bp) showed that the closest species to the new strain MA112/96Twas Mycobacterium abscessus. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses (100 characteristics) grouped the new isolates with M. abscessus, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium austroafricanum. Ribotyping with Pvull restriction distinguished the 5 isolates from the other 12 most closely related species by the major bands at 6·5--7 kb and 13--15 kb. The cell morphology of the new isolates was typical of mycobacteria, electron microscopy revealed a triple-layered cell wall with an irregular electron-dense outer layer. They grew at 10--37 °C with no growth at 45 °C in 5 d. The gene encoding the secreted 32 kDa protein, specific to mycobacteria, was detected by PCR. The main whole-cell fatty acids were characterized by high tuberculostearic acid 10Me-C18:0 (17% at 28 °C), which increased with increasing growth temperature (22% at 37 °C). The other main fatty acids were C18:1 cis9 and C16:0 (21--20% each), followed by, C17:1 cis9 (14%), C16:1 cis10 (8%) and also a high amount of C20 alcohol (9%). α-Mycolic acids, keto-mycolates and wax esters were present (C60-C90), MK-9(H2) (90%) and MK-8(H2) were the main menaquinones. The cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositolmannosides and diphosphatidylglycerol. Polyamine content was low. G+C content was 72·9 mol%. The new isolates are proposed as a new species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov. The type strain is MA112/96T(= DSM 44340T).
Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksár tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16S rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms TA68Tand TAGA27Twas supported by DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 55% between each other and with the type strains of Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae and Kocuria varians. Chemotaxonomic properties supported the placement of the two isolates in the genus Kocuria. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan is lysine, the interpeptide bridge is composed of three alanine residues. Predominant menaquinone was MK-7(H2). The fatty acid pattern represents the straight-chain saturated iso-anteiso type. Main fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown component. The DNA base composition of strains TA68Tand TAGA27Tis 69·4 and 69·6 mol% G+C, respectively. Genotypic, morphological and physiological characteristics are used to describe two new species of Kocuria, for which we propose the names Kocuria palustris, type strain DSM 11925Tand Kocuria rhizophila, type strain DSM 11926T.
Phylogenetic and chemoteaxonomic analyses indicate that Brevibacterium oxydans is closely related to species of the genus Microbacterium, namely Microbacterium liquefaciens, Microbacterium luteolum and Microbacterium saperdae. DNA-DNA reassociation values of less than 60% between Brevibacterium oxydans and these three Microbacterium species support the distinctness of this miclclassified Brevibacterium species, which is reclassified as Microbacterium oxydans comb. nov.
Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA indicates that Brevibacterium incertum is not a member of the genus Brevibacterium but related to species of the genus Carnobacterium. Hence, Brevibacterium incertum is not a member of the class Acrinobactena but belongs to the phylogenetically defined broad Bacillus-Lactobacillus cluster. Based upon properties that taxonomically clearly distinguishes Brevibacterium incertum from species of the phylogenetic sister genus Carnobacterium, Brevibacterium incertum is reclassified as Desemzia incerta gen. nov., comb. nov.
Eleven strains of a hitherto undescribed Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium from human sources and medica care products were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The phenotypic properties of the bacterium were consistent with its assignment to the genus Lactobacillus but it was readily distinguished from all currently described species of this genus by its biochemical characteristics and by SDS-PAGE analysis of its cellular proteins. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the unknown bacterium was a member of rRNA group I Lactobacillus which includes Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the type species of the genus, and close relatives. Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii were the nearest phylogenetic relatives of the unknown bacterium, but 16S rRNA sequence divergence values of >4% clealy showed that it represents a distinct species. Based on both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the genus Lactobacillus, as Lactobacillus iners sp. nov. The type strain of Lactobacillus iners is CCUG 28746T.
The taxonomic status of Arthrobacter sp. Y-11T, which was described as a squalene-degrading bacterium, was investigated by chemotaxonomic and genetic methods. The strain possesses wall chemotype IV, MK-9(H2) as the predominant menaquinone, mycolic acids, and straight-chain, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, with considerable amounts of tuberculostearic acid. The DNA G+C content is 67.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization experiments provided strong evidence that strain Y-11Trepresents a new species within the genus Corynebacterium, for which the name Corynebacterium terpenotabidum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. terpenotabidum is strain Y-11T(= IFO 14764T).
A new strain capable of forming distinctive patterns during colony development was identified by using a combination of phenotypic characterization, fatty acid analysis and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain formed either a branched, tip-splitting colony morphology (referred to as the T morphotype) or a chiral pattern exhibiting thinner branches with distinctive curling patterns (referred to as the C morphotype). Isolates of the T morphotype exhibited sequence identities greater than 97% to Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus JCM 7540. Phylogenetic analysis placed the T morphotype within the Paenibacillus cluster on a phylogenetic tree. On the basis of unique colony morphology and distinctive phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the pattern-forming isolates should be placed within a new species of Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus dendritiformis sp. nov., the type strain of which is T168T(= 30A1T).