A cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium, strain I77R1BT, was isolated from a biomat sample of an lcelandic, slightly alkaline, hot spring (78 °C). Strain I77R1BT was rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile and stained Gram-negative at all stages of growth. It grew at 45–82 °C, with an optimum growth temperature around 78 °C. At 70 °C, growth occurred at pH 5·8–8·0, with an optimum near pH 7·0. At the optimum temperature and pH, with 2 g cellobiose I−1 as substrate, strain I77R1BT had a generation time of 2 h. During growth on Avicel, strain I77R1BT produced acetate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as major fermentation products together with small amounts of lactic acid and ethanol. The strain fermented many substrates, including cellulose, xylan, starch and pectin, but did not grow with casein peptone, pyruvate, d-ribose or yeast extract and did not reduce thiosulfate to H2S. The G+C ratio of the cellular DNA was 35 mol%. Comparative 16S rDNA analysis placed strain I77R1BT among species of Caldicellulosiruptor. The closest relative was Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus. Hybridization of total DNA showed 42% hybridization to C. lactoaceticus and 22% hybridization to Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. A new species, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii sp. nov. (I77R1BT) is proposed.
Phenotypic data indicate that gliding, yellow/orange-pigmented, agar-digest bacterial strains were members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group. The strains were isolated from the surface of the marine benthic macroalga Fucus serratus l. and the surrounding seawater at three localities Danish waters. The bacteria were Gram-negative, flexirubin-negative, aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and were psychrophilic and halophilic. All strains utilized d-fructose, l-fucose and α-ketobutyric acid and degraded alginic acid, carrageenan, starch and autoclaved yeast cells. Amplification with primers specific for repetitive extragenic palindromic elements by PCR divided the strains of this study into two groups. Both groups showed unique PCR amplification patterns compared to reference strains of the CFB group. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences showed association of these organisms and [Cytophaga] lytica at the genus level. Hybridization of total chromosomal DNA revealed that the new strains and [Cytophaga] lytica ATCC 23178T were clearly distinct from each other and other previously described species of the CFB group. A new genus is described, Cellulophaga gen. nov. comprising two new species, Cellulophaga baltica gen. nov., sp. nov. (NN015840T = LMG 18535T) and Cellulophaga fucicola gen. nov., sp. nov. (NN015860T = LMG 18536T), as well as the emendation of [Cytophaga] lytica to Cellulophaga lytica gen. nov., comb. nov.
A phytoplasma was discovered in diseased specimens of field-grown hortensia (Hydrangea spp.) exhibiting typical phyllody symptoms. PCR amplification of DNA using phytoplasma specific primers detected phytoplasma DNA in all of the diseased plants examined. No phytoplasma DNA was found in healthy hortensia seedlings. RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns previously described for other phytoplasmas including six isolates of foreign hortensia phytoplasmas. Based on the RFLP, the Japanese Hydrangea phyllody (JHP) phytoplasma was classified as a representative of a new subgroup in the phytoplasma 16S rRNA group I (aster yellows, onion yellows, all of the previously reported hortensia phytoplasmas, and related phytoplasmas). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from this and other group I phytoplasmas identified the JHP phytoplasma as a member of a distinct sub-group (sub-group Id) in the phytoplasma clade of the class Mollicutes. The phylogenetic tree constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that the JHP phytoplasma and its closest known relatives, the Australian grapevine yellows (AUSGY), Phormium yellow leaf (PYL), Stolbur of Capsicum annuum (STOL) and Vergilbungskrankheit of grapevine (VK) share a common ancestor. The unique properties of the DNA from the JHP phytoplasma clearly establish that it represents a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum’.