A new, mesophillic, facultatively anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacterium, strain ANG-SQ1T (T=type strain), was isolated from a microbial community colonizing the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei. It was selected from the community on the basis of its ability to reduce elemental sulfur. The cells are motile, Gram-negative rods (2·0–3·0 μm long, 0·4–0·6 μm wide). ANG-SQ1T grows optimally over the temperature range of 25–30 °C and a pH range of 6·5–7·5 °C in media containing 0·5 M NaCl. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that this organism belongs to the γ-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The closest relative of ANG-SQ1T is Shewanella gelidimarina, with a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 97·0%. Growth occurs with glucose, lactate, acetate, pyruvate, glutamate, citrate, succinate, Casamino acids, yeast extract or peptone as sole energy source under aerobic conditions. The isolate grows anaerobically by the reduction of iron, manganese, nitrate, fumarate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor with lactate. Growth of ANG-SQ1T was enhanced by the addition of choline chloride to growth media lacking Casamino acids. The addition of leucine or valine also enhanced growth in minimal growth media supplemented with choline. The results of both phenotypic and genetic characterization indicate that ANG-SQ1T is a Shewanella species. Thus it is proposed that this new isolate be assigned to the genus Shewanella and that it should be named Shewanella pealeana sp. nov., in recognition of its association with L. pealei.
SDS-PAGE of total bacterial proteins was applied to the classification of 25 Sudanese and five Kenyan strains isolated from the root nodules of Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. Twenty strains were also studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and the whole 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from two strains representing the two major clusters. These results, together with the previously reported numerical taxonomy analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis studies, DNA-DNA dot-blot hybridization, genomic fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based PCR, DNA base composition analysis, DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and RFLP analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene, showed that all 30 strains belong to the genus Sinorhizobium. Two of the strains grouped with Sinorhizobium saheli and seven with Sinorhizobium terangae, while the rest did not cluster with any of the established species. The majority of the strains formed two phenotypically and genotypically distinct groups and we therefore propose that these strains should be classified as two new species, Sinorhizobium arboris sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kostiense sp. nov.
The phylogenetic relationships of the type strains of 38 species from 15 genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were investigated by comparative 16S rDNA analysis. Several sequences of strains from the genera Citrobacter, Erwinia, Pantoea, Proteus, Rahnella and Serratia, analysed in this study, have been analysed previously. However, as the sequences of this study differ slightly from the published ones, they were included in the analysis. Of the 23 enterobacterial genera included in an overview dendrogram of relatedness, members of the genera Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus, Proteus and Plesiomonas were used as a root. The other genera formed two groups which could be separated, although not exclusively, by signature nucleotides at positions 590–649 and 600–638. Group A. contains species of Brenneria, Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pectobacterium and Salmonella. All seven type strains of Buttiauxella share 16S rDNA similarities greater than 99%. Group B embraces two phylogenetically separate Serratia clusters, a lineage containing Yersinia species, Rahnella aquatica, Ewingella americana, and also the highly related pair Hafnia alvei and Obesumbacterium proteus.
Fifty rhizobial isolates from root nodules of Mimosa affinis, a small leguminous plant native to Mexico, were identified as Rhizobium etli on the basis of the results of PCR-RFLP and RFLP analyses of small-subunit rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA-DNA homology. They are, however, a restricted group of lineages with low genetic diversity within the species. The isolates from M. affinis differed from the R. etli strains that originated from bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the size and replicator region of the symbiotic plasmid and in symbiotic-plasmid-borne traits such as nifH gene sequence and organization, melanin production and host specificity. A new biovar, bv. mimosae, is proposed within R. etli to encompass Rhizobium isolates obtained from M. affinis. The strains from common bean plants have been designated previously as R. etli bv. phaseoli. Strains of both R. etli biovars could nodulate P. vulgaris, but only those of bv. mimosae could form nitrogen-fixing nodules on Leucaena leucocephala.
Twenty-five non-identified fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from natural mineral waters were previously clustered into three phenotypic subclusters, XIIIb, XVa and XVc. These strains were characterized genotypically in the present study. DNA-DNA hybridization results and DNA base composition analysis revealed that these strains were members of two new species, for which the names Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105469T) and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105470T) are proposed. P. gessardii included 13 strains from phenotypic subclusters XVa and XVc. P. migulae included 10 strains from phenotypic subcluster XIIIb. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 71 to 100% for P. gessardii and from 74 to 100% for P. migulae. The G+C content of the DNA of each type strain was 58 mol%. DNA similarity levels, measured with 67 reference strains of Pseudomonas species, were below 55%, with ΔT m values of 13 °C or more. The two new species presented basic morphological characteristics common to all pseudomonads. Various phenotypic features were found to differentiate them: P. gessardii strains utilized l-arabitol, myo-inositol, adonitol, xylitol and meso-erythritol as carbon sources, whereas P. migulae strains assimilated l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-saccharate, meso-tartrate, tricarballylate, d-glucuronate, d-galacturonate, phenylacetate and histamine. The complete 16S rRNA sequences of each type strain were determined and compared with those of the type strains of Pseudomonas species. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was inferred from sequence analysis and demonstrated that the two new species fell into the ‘Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster’. To date, their clinical significance is unknown.
A novel bacterium has been found that causes a soft rot disease of Agaricus bisporus, the cultivated mushroom. It has been characterized using nutritional, physiological, chemical and molecular techniques. Based on these data, it was shown to have many characteristics in common with members of the genus Janthinobacterium. Despite similarities to the only described species within this genus, Janthinobacterium lividum, there were a number of differences between the mushroom pathogen isolated and this species. Despite the high degree of genotypic similarity between members of the genus Janthinobacterium and Herbaspirillum, as evidenced by DNA-RNA hybridization, and the high degree of 16S rDNA sequence similarity between members of the genera Janthinobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Oxalobacter and Duganella, as well as the generically misnamed Pseudomonas lemoignei, it was possible to show that members of the genus Janthinobacterium could be easily distinguished from these taxa. The data also indicated that the mushroom pathogenic strains represent a novel species within the genus Janthinobacterium for which the name Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species has been deposited in the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany, as DSM 9628T and at the National Collection of Plantpathogenic bacteria, UK, as NCPPB 3945T. To aid practical control of the disease, the effect of the relative humidity on symptom expression on Agaricus bisporus was determined.
In an attempt to understand better the micro-organisms involved in anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Fe(III)-reducing zone of petroleum-contaminated aquifers, Fe(III)-reducing micro-organisms were isolated from contaminated aquifer material that had been adapted for rapid oxidation of toluene coupled to Fe(III) reduction. One of these organisms, strain H-5T, was enriched and isolated on acetate/Fe(III) medium. Strain H-5T is a Gram-negative strict anaerobe that grows with various simple organic acids such as acetate, propionate, lactate and fumarate as alternative electron donors with Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. In addition, strain H-5T also oxidizes long-chain fatty acids such as palmitate with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. Strain H-5T can also grow by fermentation of citrate or fumarate in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor. The primary endproducts of citrate fermentation are acetate and succinate. In addition to various forms of soluble and insoluble Fe(III), strain H-5T grows with nitrate, Mn(IV), fumarate and the humic acid analogue 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate as alternative electron acceptors. As with other organisms that can oxidize organic compounds completely with the reduction of Fe(III), cell suspensions of strain H-5T have absorbance maxima indicative of a c-type cytochrome(s). It is proposed that strain H-5T represents a novel genus in the Holophaga-Acidobacterium phylum and that it should be named Geothrix fermentans sp. nov., gen. nov.
Five psychrophilic Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard. All isolates grew at the in situ temperature of -1·7 °C. In batch cultures, strain PSv29T had the highest growth rate at 7 °C strains ASv26T and LSv54T had the highest growth rate at 10 °C, and strains LSv21T and LSv514T had the highest growth rate at 18 °C. The new isolates used the most common fermentation products in marine sediments, such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate and hydrogen, but only strain ASv26T was able to oxidize fatty acids completely to CO2. The new strains had growth optima at neutral pH and marine salt concentration, except for LSv54T which grew fastest with 1% NaCl. Sulfite and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors by strains ASv26T, PSv29T and LSv54T, and all strains except PSv29T grew with Fe3+ (ferric citrate) as electron acceptor. Chemotaxonomy based on cellular fatty acid patterns and menaquinones showed good agreement with the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences. All strains belonged to the δ subclass of Proteobacteria but had at least 9% evolutionary distance from known sulfate reducers. Due to the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences between the new isolates and their closest relatives, establishment of the new genera Desulfotalea gen. nov., Desulfofaba gen. nov. and Desulfofrigus gen. nov. is proposed, with strain ASv26T as the type strain of the type species Desulfofrigus oceanense sp. nov., LSv21T as the type strain of Desulfofrigus fragile sp. nov., PSv29T as the type strain of the type species Desulfofaba gelida sp. nov., LSv54T as the type strain of the type species Desulfotalea psychrophila sp. nov. and LSv514T as the type strain of Desulfotalea arctica sp. nov.
The taxonomic position of Photorhabdus strains was examined through the results of DNA relatedness (S1 nuclease method) studies associated with the determination of ΔT m, 16S rRNA phylogenetic inferences and phenotypic characterization, including morphological, auxanographic, biochemical and physiological properties. Three genomic species were delineated on a consensus assessment. One of these species corresponded to Photorhabdus luminescens, since strains were at least 50% related to the type strain of this species with ΔT m less than 7 °C. The two other species were novel genomic species II and III, which were less than 40% related to each other with ΔT m higher than 9 °C. A comparison of the complete 16S rDNA sequences of several representatives of genomic species II and genomic species III revealed that each of them formed a stable lineage independent of the cluster generated by P. luminescens strains. The genomic species differed in their maximum temperatures for growth. A correlation with the ecological origin of the bacterial samples was noticed. The heat-tolerant group I (maximum growth temperature 35–39 °C) corresponded to the symbionts of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora groups Brecon and HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica, nematodes living in warm and tropical countries, respectively. Group II (maximum growth temperature 33–35 °C) encompassed symbionts from Heterorhabditis megidis, Heterorhabditis zealandica and group NC1 of H. bacteriophora, nematodes isolated in temperate climates. Group III were bacteria isolated from human specimens. Two new species, Photorhabdus temperata sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105563T and Photorhabdus asymbiotica sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 43950T), are proposed for genomic species II and III, respectively. Species I and II can be separated into sub-groups on the basis of high DNA-DNA relatedness (more than 80% DNA binding with ΔTüm < 1·5 °C), 16S rDNA branching and phenotypic characters. Therefore, we propose that the two species P. luminescens and P. temperata should be subdivided into subspecies as follows: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 29999T), P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov. (type strain CIP 105564T), P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov. (type strain CIP 105565T) and P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov.
A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the α-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98·8–99·3% and 97·9–98·5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0·01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (=DSM 12717T).
By sequencing a total of 2089 bp of the 16S rRNA and phoE genes it was demonstrated that Calymmatobacterium granulomatis (the causative organism of donovanosis) shows a high level of identity with Klebsiella species pathogenic to humans (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis). It is proposed that C. granulomatis should be reclassified as Klebsiella granulomatis comb. nov. An emended description of the genus Klebsiella is given.
‘Gastrospirillum suis’ is an uncultured, tightly spiral micro-organism that has been associated with ulcer disease in the stomachs of pigs. It was the purpose of this study to determine the phylogenetic position of ‘G. suis’. Stomachs of five slaughterhouse pigs, originating from different Belgian and Dutch farms, were selected on the basis of the presence of ‘G. suis’-like bacteria, as demonstrated by biochemical, immunohistochemical and electron microscopical data. Bacterial 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR using broadrange primers and five helicobacter-like sequences were determined either by direct or indirect sequence analysis. An inter-sequence homology of 99·7% was observed, suggesting that the sequences originated from strains belonging to a single species. Phylogenetic analysis of the consensus sequence placed the organism within the genus Helicobacter, where it formed a distinct sub-group together with other gastrospirillum-like bacteria (Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salomonis and ‘Helicobacter heilmannii’ types 1 and 2). Diagnostic PCR primers and a probe were developed that differentiated the porcine sequences from all known helicobacters. These results indicate that the porcine sequences represent a single taxon within the genus Helicobacter. The low similarity level towards H. salomonis (96·6%), its closest validly named neighbour, strongly suggests that this taxon is a novel Helicobacter species. In situ hybridization experiments linked the reference sequence to the ‘G. suis’-like bacteria. On the basis of these results, we propose the name ‘Candidatus Helicobacter suis’ for this gastric helicobacter from pigs.
The relationship of mixotrophic and autotrophic Thiothrix species to morphologically similar chemoorganotrophic bacteria (e.g. Leucothrix species, Eikelboom type 021N bacteria) has been a matter of debate for some years. These bacteria have alternatively been grouped together on the basis of shared morphological features or separated on the basis of their nutrition. Many of these bacteria are difficult to maintain in axenic culture and, until recently, few isolates were available to allow comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Several isolates of Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N strains were characterized by comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis. This revealed that the Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N isolates formed a monophyletic group. Furthermore, isolates of Eikelboom type 021N bacteria isolated independently from different continents were phylogenetically closely related. The 16S rRNA sequence-based phylogeny was congruent with the morphological similarities between Thiothrix and Eikelboom type 021N. However, one isolate examined in this study (Ben47) shared many morphological features with the Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N isolates, but was not closely related to them phylogenetically. Consequently, morphology alone cannot be used to assign bacteria to the Thiothrix/type 021N group. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis supports monophyly of the Thiothrix/type 021N group, and phenotypic differences between the Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N bacteria are currently poorly defined. For example, both groups include heterotrophic organisms that deposit intracellular elemental sulfur. It is therefore proposed that the Eikelboom type 021N bacteria should be accommodated within the genus Thiothrix as a new species, Thiothrix eikelboomii sp. nov., and three further new Thiothrix species are described: Thiothrix unzii sp. nov., Thiothrix fructosivorans sp. nov. and Thiothrix defluvii sp. nov.