During our previous studies we reclassified Clostridium coccoides and a number of misclassified ruminococci into a novel genus Blautia within the family Lachnospiraceae . However, the Rules of the Bacteriological Code currently require that the types of all species and subspecies with new names (including new combinations) be deposited in two different collections in two different countries. The type strain of Ruminococcus obeum was, at that period in time, only deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and a second independent deposit, as required by the Code, was not available. Consequently, the transfer of this species to the genus Blautia could not be made, because the resulting species name would not conform to the Rules governing the valid publication of species names and deposit of type material (Rules 27 and 30) and consequently would not be considered to be validly published. This resulted in a nomenclatural and taxonomic anomaly with R. obeum being phylogenetically placed among members of the genus Blautia with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of between 91.8 and 96.6 %. In order to rectify this unsatisfactory situation, through our discussions with the ATCC, the deposit of strain R. obeum ATCC 29174T to the DSMZ as strain number DSM 25238T was completed. Hence, the transfer of R. obeum to the genus Blautia as Blautia obeum comb. nov. is now proposed. The type strain is ATCC 29174T ( = DSM 25238T = KCTC 15206T).
An obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated strain GK12T, was isolated from an anaerobic digester in Fukagawa, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The cells of strain GK12T were non-motile, non-spore-forming cocci that commonly occurred in chains. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GK12T was affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes and showed 91.8 % sequence similarity to the most closely related species, Faecalicoccus acidiformans . The strain grew at 30–50 °C (optimally at 40 °C) and at pH 5.5–8.5 (optimally at pH 7.5). The main end product of glucose fermentation was lactate. Yeast extract was required for growth. The strain contained C14 : 0, C14 : 0 1,1-dimethoxyalkane (DMA), C16 : 0 DMA and C18 : 0 DMA as the major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total). The polar lipid profile was composed of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unidentified phospholipid. The whole-cell sugars were galactose, rhamnose and ribose. The cell-wall murein contained alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, serine and threonine, but not diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 47.7 mol%. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel genus and species, Catenisphaera adipataccumulans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain GK12T ( = NBRC 108915T = DSM 25799T).
A Gram-reaction-positive, motile, thermophilic spore-forming strain, G1w1T, was isolated from a hot spring of the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russia). Based on data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study, including phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and spo0A gene sequences, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Geobacillus , for which the name Geobacillus icigianus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G1w1T ( = VKM B-2853T = DSM 28325T).
Three strains of an anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive coccobacillus were isolated from the intestines of mice. These strains shared 100 % similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, but were distantly related to any described members of the family Lachnospiraceae (<94 %). The most closely related species with names that have standing in nomenclature were Robinsoniella peoriensis , Ruminococcus gnavus , Blautia producta and Clostridium xylanolyticum . Phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were confirmed by partial sequencing of hsp60 genes. The use of an in-house database search pipeline revealed that the new isolates are most prevalent in bovine gut samples when compared with human and mouse samples for Ruminococcus gnavus and B. producta . All three isolated strains shared similar cellular fatty acid patterns dominated by C16 : 0 methyl ester. Differences in the proportions of C12 : 0 methyl ester, C14 : 0 methyl ester and C18 : 1 cis-11 dimethyl acetal were observed when compared with phylogenetically neighbouring species. The major short-chain fatty acid produced by strain SRB-530-5-HT was acetic acid. This strain tested positive for utilization of d-fructose, d-galacturonic acid, d-malic acid, l-alanyl l-threonine and l-glutamic acid but was negative for utilization of amygdalin, arbutin, α-d-glucose, 3-methyl d-glucose and salicin, in contrast to the type strain of the closest related species Robinsoniella peoriensis . The isolates were not able to use mannitol for growth. Based on genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose to create the new genus and species Murimonas intestini gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate the three strains SRB-530-5-HT ( = DSM 26524T = CCUG 63391T) (the type strain of Murimonas intestini), SRB-509-4-S-H ( = DSM 27577 = CCUG 64595) and SRB-524-4-S-H ( = DSM 27578 = CCUG 64594).
An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain designated KC3T was isolated from a rice straw-degrading culture, for which soil of a Japanese rice field was used as the inoculum. Cells of strain KC3T were determined to be non-cellulolytic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, ellipsoidal, spore-forming rods, 0.8–1×4–25 µm. Endospores were formed at a terminal position in elongated cells (12–25 µm, mean 15 µm). The temperature range for growth was 20–50 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.0–7.5, with an optimum at pH 6.0 (slightly acidophilic). Strain KC3T fermented cellobiose to lactate, butyrate, acetate, formate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo 11,12 dimethylacetal. The DNA G+C content of strain KC3T was 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC3T shared low sequence similarity (<93 %) with type strains of the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (Clostridium rRNA cluster I). Analyses of the DNA gyrase A and ATP synthase beta subunit sequences supported the affiliation of strain KC3T to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto. The evidence presented here indicates that strain KC3T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium , for which the name Clostridium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Clostridium oryzae is KC3T ( = DSM 28571T = NBRC 110163T).