A novel bacterial strain, NGM72.4T, was isolated from a hot spring in the Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped it into the phylum Verrucomicrobia and class level group 3 (also known as OPB35 soil group). NGM72.4T stained Gram-negative, and was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Cells were small cocci, 0.5–0.8 µm in diameter, which were motile by means of single flagella. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) imaging showed an unusual pirellulosome-like intracytoplasmic membrane. The peptidoglycan content was very small with only trace levels of diaminopimelic acid detected. No peptidoglycan structure was visible in TEM imaging. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 (92 %). The major fatty acids (>15 %) were C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Major phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PMME) and cardiolipin (CL), and a novel analogous series of phospholipids where diacylglycerol was replaced with diacylserinol (sPE, sPMME, sCL). The DNA G+C content was 65.6 mol%. Cells displayed an oxidative chemoheterotrophic metabolism. NGM72.4T is a strictly aerobic thermophile (growth optimum 60–65 °C), has a slightly alkaliphilic pH growth optimum (optimum pH 8.1–8.4) and has a NaCl tolerance of up to 8 g l−1. Colonies were small, circular and pigmented pale pink. The distinct phylogenetic position and phenotypic traits of strain NGM72.4T distinguish it from all other described species of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and, therefore, it is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus for which we propose the name Limisphaera ngatamarikiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is NGM72.4T ( = ICMP 20182T = DSM 27329T).
A novel anaerobic, mesophilic, slightly halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain Khaled BD4T, was isolated from waters of a Tunisian thermal spring. Cells were vibrio-shaped or sigmoids (5–7×1–1.5 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. Strain Khaled BD4T was Gram-stain-negative, motile and non-sporulated. It grew at 25–45 °C (optimum 37 °C), at pH 5.5–8.3 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0.5–8 % NaCl (optimum 3 %). It required vitamins or yeast extract for growth. Sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur served as terminal electron acceptors, but not fumarate, nitrate or nitrite. Strain Khaled BD4T utilized H2 in the presence of 2 mM acetate (carbon source), but also lactate, formate, pyruvate and fumarate in the presence of sulfate. Lactate was incompletely oxidized to acetate. Amongst substrates used, only pyruvate was fermented. Desulfoviridin and c-type cytochrome were present. The G+C content of the DNA was 54.6 mol%. The main fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Khaled BD4T had Desulfovibrio giganteus DSM 4123T (96.7 % similarity) as its closest phylogenetic relative. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons together with genetic and physiological characteristics, strain Khaled BD4T is assigned to a novel bacterial species, for which the name Desulfovibrio biadhensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Khaled BD4T ( = DSM 28904T = JCM 30146T).