A novel anoxygenic photoheterotrophic member of the phylum Acidobacteria , Chloracidobacterium thermophilum strain B sp. nov., was isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture derived from microbial mats associated with Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, WY. C. thermophilum sp. nov. was a Gram-stain-negative rod (diameter, approximately 0.8–1.0 µm; variable length, approximately 2.5 µm), which formed greenish-brown liquid suspension cultures. It was a moderately thermophilic microaerophile and grew in a defined medium at 51 °C (Topt; range 44 to 58 °C) and in the pH range 5.5 to 9.5 (pHopt = ~7.0). The DNA G+C content was 61.3 mol%, and phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA sequence, showed that C. thermophilum sp. nov. belongs to subdivision 4 ( Acidobacteriaceae ) of the Acidobacteria . C. thermophilum sp. nov. was unable to synthesize branched-chain amino acids, l-lysine, and vitamin B12, which were required for growth. Although the organism lacked genes/enzymes for autotrophic carbon fixation, bicarbonate was required. Growth was stimulated by other amino acids and 2-oxoglutarate. Cells produced chlorosomes containing a diverse mixture of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c derivatives, and additionally, synthesized BChl a P, Chl a PD, and Zn-BChl a′P, which occurred in type-1 homodimeric reaction centres. The carotenoids included echinenone, canthaxanthin, lycopene, γ-carotene and β-carotene. C. thermophilum sp. nov. produced iso-diabolic acid as its major fatty acid and synthesized three hopanoids (diploptene, bacteriohopanetetrol and bacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether). Based upon its phenotypic and genotypic properties, the name Chloracidobacterium thermophilum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate; the type strain is C. thermophilum strain BT (ATCC BAA-2647 = JCM 30199).
An aerobic, budding, non-pigmented and rosette-forming bacterium was isolated from a littoral wetland of a boreal lake located in Valaam Island, northern Russia, and designated strain P3T. Ellipsoidal to pear-shaped cells of this bacterium were covered with crateriform pits and possessed stalks suggesting a planctomycete morphotype. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed that strain P3T was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to a phylogenetic lineage defined by the genus Planctomyces , with 89 and 86 % sequence similarity to Planctomyces brasiliensis and Planctomyces maris , respectively. Strain P3T was a mildly acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH values between pH 4.2 and 7.1 (with an optimum at pH 6.0–6.5) and at temperatures between 10 and 30 °C (optimum at 20–28 °C). Most sugars, a number of polysaccharides and several organic acids were the preferred growth substrates. Compared with Planctomyces brasiliensis and Planctomyces maris , which require NaCl for growth, strain P3T was salt-sensitive and did not develop at NaCl concentrations above 0.5 % (w/v). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c; the cells also contained significant amounts of C18 : 1ω7c and C18 : 0. The major intact polar lipids were diacylglycerol-O-(N,N,N-trimethyl)homoserine (DGTS) lipids; the major neutral lipids were long-chain 1,(ω-1)-diols and C31 : 9 hydrocarbon. The quinone was MK-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 59.0 mol%. Strain P3T differed from Planctomyces brasiliensis and Planctomyces maris by cell morphology, substrate utilization pattern and a number of physiological characteristics. Based on these data, the novel isolate should be considered as representing a novel genus and species of planctomycetes, for which the name Planctomicrobium piriforme gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is P3T ( = DSM 26348T = VKM B-2887T).