A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated SGD-V-25T was isolated from Veraval sediment sample, India. Strain SGD-V-25T was capable of growing at 25–50 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6–12 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0–5 % (w/v) NaCl. The taxonomic position of this strain was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the phylum Firmicutes , forming the cluster with Bacillus badius MTCC 1548T, with which it shares highest similarity of 99.1 % with 13 nt differences. Other type strains of the genus Bacillus showed less than 96 % similarity. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipid profile of strain SGD-V-25T showed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phsophoglycolipid and two aminophospholipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω11c and C16 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SGD-V-25T was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain SGD-V-25T could be clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus Bacillus , and the name Bacillus encimensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate this strain. The type strain is SGD-V-25T ( = NCIM 5513T = DSM 28241T).
A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, iron-reducing bacterial strain, IRF19T, was isolated from coal-contaminated soil in the Republic of Korea. IRF19T cells were straight, rod-shaped, Gram-staining-negative and motile by means of flagella. The optimum pH and temperature for their growth were determined to be pH 7.5–8.0 and 40 °C, while the optimum range was pH 6.5–10.0 and 20–45 °C, respectively. Strain IRF19T did not require NaCl for growth but it tolerated up to 2 % (w/v). Growth was observed with yeast extract, d-glucose, d-fructose, d-ribose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, l-serine, l-alanine and l-isoleucine. Fe(III), elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and sulfate were used as electron acceptors. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain IRF19T is affiliated to the family Clostridiaceae and is most closely related to Salimesophilobacter vulgaris Zn2T (93.5 % similarity), Geosporobacter subterraneus VNs68T (93.2 %) and Thermotalea metallivorans B2-1T (92.3 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain IRF19T were C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, and the profile was distinct from those of the closely related species. The major respiratory quinone of strain IRF19T was menaquinone MK-5 (V-H2). The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain IRF19T was determined to be 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic results, strain IRF19T is considered to represent a novel species of a novel genus of the family Clostridiaceae , for which we propose the name Anaerosolibacter carboniphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., with the type strain IRF19T ( = KCTC 15396T = JCM 19988T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic rod, designated strain JSM 100118T, was isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) collected from the tidal flat of Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. Strain JSM 100118T was able to grow with 0–13 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2–5 %), at pH 5.5–10.0 (optimum pH 7.5) and at 5–50 °C (optimum 30–35 °C). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω11c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown glycolipid and an unknown phospholipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 100118T belonged to the genus Bacillus , and was most closely related to Bacillus litoralis SW-211T (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Bacillus halosaccharovorans E33T (98.3 %), Bacillus niabensis 4T19T (97.8 %) and Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1,5aT (97.1 %). The combination of results from the phylogenetic analysis, DNA–DNA hybridization, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization supported the conclusion that strain JSM 100118T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus crassostreae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 100118T ( = CCTCC AB 2010452T = DSM 24486T = JCM 17523T).
A Gram-stain-positive bacterium, designated strain NIO-1109T, was isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and data from phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NIO-1109T was related to the genus Exiguobacterium . Strain NIO-1109T exhibited >98.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to Exiguobacterium indicum HHS 31T (99.5 %) and Exiguobacterium acetylicum NCIMB 9889T (99.1 %); the type strains of other species showed <98 % similarity. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain NIO-1109T and E. acetylicum DSM 20416T and E. indicum LMG 23471T were less than 70 % (33.0±2.0 and 37±3.2 %, respectively). Strain NIO-1109T also differed from these two closely related species in a number of phenotypic traits. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain NIO-1109T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Exiguobacterium , for which the name Exiguobacterium enclense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1109T ( = NCIM 5457T = DSM 25128T = CCTCC AB 2011124T).