Six obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, pale-yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated YM3-301T, HG868, 04PA2 Co4-8B, 04PA2 Co4-99A, 04PA2 018SW-3 and 04PA2 018SW-18, were isolated from a marine sponge and seawater and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolates were affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes) and that they showed the highest sequence similarity (90.3–90.9 %) to members of the genus Leeuwenhoekiella and to Zhouia amylotica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with respect to members of other related genera were only 86.3–89.1 %. In contrast, the six isolates shared high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.7–100 %) and DNA-DNA relatedness (72–94 %) with each other. The novel isolates were phenotypically and physiologically different from members of related genera. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.8–43.5 mol%, MK-6 was the major menaquinone and i15 : 0, i15 : 1 and i17 : 0 3-OH were the major fatty acids. On the basis of the data from the taxonomic studies, it was concluded that these six novel strains represent a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Leptobacterium flavescens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Leptobacterium flavescens is YM3-301T (=KCTC 22160T=MBIC 06275T=NBRC 104141T).
Eight anaerobic, pigmented, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains isolated from monkey oral cavities were characterized phenotypically and chemotaxonomically and their phylogenetic positions were determined using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these isolates represent a single species of the genus Prevotella. These strains were most closely related to Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611T, with 95.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The next most closely related species were Prevotella pallens and Prevotella nigrescens (92.7 and 92.1 % similarity to the respective type strains). The phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were the same as those of P. intermedia JCM 12248T and P. nigrescens JCM 12250T. The isolates could be differentiated from P. pallens JCM 11140T on the basis of mannose fermentation and α-fucosidase activity. The isolates could not be distinguished from P. intermedia or P. nigrescens using conventional biochemical tests. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments revealed the genomic distinctiveness of these eight strains with respect to P. pallens JCM 11140T, P. intermedia JCM 12248T and P. nigrescens JCM 12250T. On the basis of these data, strains 04013, 04021, 04043, 04052T, 0406, 04113, 04111 and 04161 represent a novel Prevotella species, for which the name Prevotella falsenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 04052T (=JCM 15124T =CCUG 56137T).
A Gram-negative, yellowish bacterial strain, designated Gsoil 1519T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon province (South Korea) and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Gsoil 1519T belongs to the family ‘Flexibacteraceae’ and is related to Spirosoma rigui KCTC 12531T (91.8 % similarity) and Spirosoma linguale LMG 10896T (91.5 % similarity). Phylogenetic distances from any other recognized species within the family ‘Flexibacteraceae’ were greater than 14.7 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Gsoil 1519T was 50.1 %. The detection of MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and a fatty acid profile with C16 : 1 ω5c, summed feature 4 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major acids supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 1519T to the genus Spirosoma. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 1519T should be classified in the genus Spirosoma as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Spirosoma panaciterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 1519T (=KCTC 22263T=DSM 21099T).
Strain TW5T, a motile, Gram-negative bacterium that produced pale-pink colonies, was isolated from tap water on R2A agar at 20 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that the strain clustered with Arcicella aquatica (99.0 % sequence similarity to the type strain). The main polyamine present was spermidine, the quinone system comprised menaquinone MK-7 and the polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of aminophospholipids, aminolipids, glycolipids and uncharacterized polar lipids. The fatty acid profile was slightly different from that reported for A. aquatica. The results of DNA–DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests clearly allowed both genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolate from A. aquatica. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the strain should be classified within a novel species of the genus Arcicella. The name proposed for this taxon is Arcicella rosea sp. nov.; the type strain is TW5T (=CCUG 55942T =CCM 7523T).
A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated TR6-06T, was isolated from a compost sample in South Korea and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. The isolate was positive for catalase and oxidase tests, but negative for gelatinase and urease and for indole and H2S production. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TR6-06T was most closely affiliated with members of the genus Pedobacter of the family Sphingobacteriaceae. Strain TR6-06T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 89.9–93.5 % to the type strains of species of the genus Pedobacter. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain TR6-06T was 41.9 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1 ω7c and anteiso-C15 : 0. These chemotaxonomic data support the affiliation of strain TR6-06T to the genus Pedobacter. However, on the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain TR6-06T (=KCTC 12638T=LMG 23490T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Pedobacter composti sp. nov. is proposed.