A bacterial strain, designated DNG6T, was isolated from forest soil of the Changbai mountains, Heilongjiang province, China. Cells of strain DNG6T were Gram-negative, 0.3–0.5 μm in diameter and 1.0–2.0 μm in length, strictly aerobic and produced large amounts of extracellular fibrillar material. Growth occurred at 16–33 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0–7.5) and in the presence of 0–1 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Strain DNG6T contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone and iso-C15 : 0 (40.6 %) and summed feature 4 comprising iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B (26.5 %) as the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 48.1 mol% (T m). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the closest relative of strain DNG6T was Adhaeribacter aquaticus MBRG1.5T with 93.9 % sequence similarity. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain DNG6T represents a novel species of the genus Adhaeribacter, for which the name Adhaeribacter terreus is proposed, with strain DNG6T (=CGMCC 1.6961T=NBRC 104235T) as the type strain.
A rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain JO-1T, was isolated from an apparently healthy Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, collected at Wan Island, Korea. It grew at 15–37 °C (optimum 30 °C) only in the presence of sea salts. Strain JO-1T hydrolysed casein, Tween 80 and starch. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (23.8 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH; 14.5 %) and iso-C15 : 1 G (14.1 %). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain JO-1T was a member of the genus Tenacibaculum in the family Flavobacteriaceae, with sequence similarity of 94.6–97.8 % to the type strains of recognized members of the genus. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 31.4 mol%. DNA–DNA relatedness levels between strain JO-1T and the five closest relatives, Tenacibaculum litoreum KCCM 42115T, T. lutimaris KCTC 12302T, T. aestuarii KCTC 12569T, T. mesophilum DSM 13764T and T. adriaticum JCM 14633T, were less than 28 %. Phylogenetic analyses and differences in physiological and biochemical characteristics suggested that strain JO-1T (=KCTC 22329T =JCM 15428T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum crassostreae sp. nov. is proposed.
A Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, X-65T, isolated from desert soil of Xinjiang, China, was subjected to phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the isolate showed closest relationship to members of the genera Chryseobacterium (92.4–95.4 % similarity), Cloacibacterium (94.0 %), Sejongia (93.9 %) and Elizabethkingia (93.8 %) and to Riemerella columbina LMG 11607T (93.3 %). The strain differed from its phylogenetic neighbours by its swimming motility in liquid cultures and the presence of long appendages and large amounts of the straight-chain fatty acids 16 : 0 and 18 : 0. Growth was observed at 18–37 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6–12 (optimum pH 7–8) and in the presence of 0–3 % NaCl (optimum 0 %). Flexirubin pigments were absent. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of X-65T was 41.5 mol%. The data presented in this study indicate that the isolate should be classified in a novel genus and species within the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Planobacterium taklimakanense gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Planobacterium taklimakanense is X-65T (=CCTCC AB 208154T =NRRL B-51322T).
Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming eubacterial strains were isolated in western Montana, USA, and subjected to taxonomic studies. Strains NWG-II14T and NWER-II11T were isolated from hyporheic sediments of a large alluvial flood plain, whereas strain G-1T was isolated from a conifer forest soil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains NWG-II14T, NWER-II11T and G-1T were shown to belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae and are most closely related to various species of the genus Pedobacter. The results of molecular, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of these three strains from 23 Pedobacter species with validly published names. The three isolates therefore represent novel species, for which the names Pedobacter nyackensis sp. nov. (type strain NWG-II14T =DSM 19625T =LMG 24260T), Pedobacter alluvionis sp. nov. (type strain NWER-II11T =DSM 19624T =LMG 24258T) and Pedobacter borealis sp. nov. (type strain G-1T =DSM 19626T =LMG 24259T) are proposed.
During our investigation of the bacteriology of human wound infections and abscesses, a novel anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative bacillus was frequently isolated. On the basis of morphological and biochemical criteria, the strains were tentatively identified as belonging to the family Bacteroidaceae, but they did not appear to correspond to any recognized species of this family. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the 14 novel strains were genotypically homogeneous and confirmed their placement in the genus Porphyromonas. Sequence divergence values >10 % with respect to reference Porphyromonas species demonstrated that the strains isolated represent a novel species. On the basis of biochemical criteria and phylogenetic considerations, it is proposed that these strains isolated from human sources should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Porphyromonas, named Porphyromonas bennonis sp. nov., with WAL 1926CT (=ATCC BAA-1629T =CCUG 55979T) as the type strain.
Two bacterial strains, designated MT01T and MT12T, isolated from rat faeces were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included analysis of their phenotypic and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles, menaquinone profiles and phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these strains were members of the family ‘Porphyromonadaceae’. The strains shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were related to Odoribacter splanchnicus NCTC 10825T (86–87 % sequence similarity). The strains consisted of obligately anaerobic, non-pigmented, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-negative rods. Growth of the strains was inhibited on medium containing 20 % bile. The two strains produced significant levels of butyric and isobutyric acids as end products from glucose. Although the major cellular fatty acid of these two strains and O. splanchnicus JCM 15291T was iso-C15 : 0, strains MT01T and MT12T showed a higher level of iso-C15 : 0 (66 and 74 %, respectively) than did O. splanchnicus JCM 15291T (48 %). In addition, the ratios of iso-C15 : 0 to anteiso-C15 : 0 in whole-cell methanolysates of the two isolates were very much higher than that of O. splanchnicus JCM 15291T. The major menaquinone of the isolates was MK-10. This menaquinone composition was different from those of other genera of the family ‘Porphyromonadaceae’, such as Barnesiella (predominant menaquinones: MK-11 and MK-12), Odoribacter (MK-9), Paludibacter (MK-8), Parabacteroides (MK-9 and MK-10), Porphyromonas (MK-9 and MK-10) and Tannerella (MK-10 and MK-11). Menaquinone composition is therefore an important chemotaxonomic characteristic of these micro-organisms. Strains MT01T and MT12T have DNA G+C contents of 46 mol%. On the basis of these data, strains MT01T and MT12T represent two novel species of a novel genus, for which the names Butyricimonas synergistica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Butyricimonas virosa sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains of B. synergistica and B. virosa are MT01T (=JCM 15148T =CCUG 56610T) and MT12T (=JCM 15149T=CCUG 56611T), respectively.
A yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, Gram-staining-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated CJ7T, was isolated from a freshwater lake at Chung-Ang University in Anseong, South Korea. Results from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was phylogenetically affiliated with members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain CJ7T showed sequence similarity values of 91.5–98.0 % to the type strains of recognized Flavobacterium species. The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain CJ7T and Flavobacterium hercynium DSM 18292T, which showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was 25.4 %. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (18.3 %), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c) (16.1 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (8.9 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (7.2 %), iso-C17 : 1 ω9c (6.1 %) and iso-C15 : 1 (5.9 %). Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6. The DNA G+C content was 34.5 mol%. The results obtained from this study, with a polyphasic taxonomic approach, suggested that strain CJ7T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium for which the name Flavobacterium chungangense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ7T (=KACC 13353T=JCM 15651T).
A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium, strain A8-7T, was isolated from fresh water of a slightly alkaline lake, Longhu Lake, in Daqing, north-east China, and its taxonomic position was studied by using a polyphasic approach. Strain A8-7T was aerobic, heterotrophic and positive for catalase and oxidase. It grew at 20–37 °C (optimum 30 °C) and pH 5.5–10.5 (optimum pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0–3 % (w/v) NaCl. It formed pink-pigmented, smooth and circular colonies, 1–2 mm in diameter, on R3A-V agar plates after incubation at 30 °C for 3 days. Cells of strain A8-7T were rods, 0.2–0.4 μm wide and 1.6–4.0 μm long. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15 : 0 (40.3 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH; 12.1 %). The menaquinone was MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 43 mol% (T m). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain A8-7T was phylogenetically related to members of the genus Algoriphagus, with sequence similarities of 92.6–95.2 %, the highest sequence similarity being to the sequence from Algoriphagus mannitolivorans IMSNU 14012T. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain A8-7T was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Algoriphagus, for which the name Algoriphagus aquatilis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A8-7T (=CGMCC 1.7030T =NBRC 104237T).