An aerobic, pale-orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain EM39T, was isolated from seawater from the eastern coast of Jeju Island, Korea, and its taxonomic status was established using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies revealed that strain EM39T formed a distinct lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae and could be distinguished from strains of members of the related genera Gaetbulibacter, Mariniflexile and Tamlana by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (similarity values between strain EM39T and related strains were all less than 93.8 %). Cells of strain EM39T were non-gliding, catalase- and oxidase-positive rods that were devoid of flexirubin pigments. Growth was observed at 15–35 °C (optimum, 25–30 °C) and pH 6.5–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0–8.5). The genomic DNA G+C content was 34.6 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain EM39T represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Jejuia pallidilutea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EM39T (=KCTC 22298T=DSM 21165T).
Flavobacteria are emerging as an important group of organisms associated with the degradation of complex organic matter in aquatic environments. A novel Gram-reaction-negative, heterotrophic, rod-shaped, aerobic, yellow-pigmented and gliding bacterium, strain SCB36T, was isolated from a protein-enriched seawater sample, collected at Scripps Pier, Southern California Bight (Eastern Pacific). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the bacterium was related to members of the genus Winogradskyella within the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the other Winogradskyella species was 94.5–97.1 %. DNA–DNA relatedness between strain SCB36T and Winogradskyella thalassocola KMM 3907T, its closest relative in terms of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was 20 %. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strain SCB36T represents a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella rapida sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCB36T (=CECT 7392T =CCUG 56098T).
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain, 7401987T, was isolated from a human brain abscess sample. Cells were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, coccoid to rod-shaped and motile by flagella in a lophotrichous arrangement. The isolate was asaccharolytic and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (28.2 %), C16 : 0 (18.0 %), iso-C15 : 0 (12.3 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (11.7 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolate was distantly related to members of the genera Bacteroides (<83.6 % similarity), Parabacteroides (<79.9 % similarity), Tannerella (<79.8 % similarity), Dysgonomonas (<79.6 % similarity), Porphyromonas (<79.3 % similarity) and Prevotella (<78.9 % similarity). The low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values and physiological and biochemical characteristics differentiated strain 7401987T from all known species and indicate that our isolate represents a novel species in a new genus within the phylum Bacteroidetes. The name Phocaeicola abscessus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of Phocaeicola abscessus is 7401987T (=CCUG 55929T =CSUR P22T =DSM 21584T).
The genus Sejongia was described in 2005, with the two species Sejongia antarctica and Sejongia jeonii, mainly on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. At that time, these organisms formed a quite separate branch in a 16S rRNA gene sequence-based tree, but, in subsequent studies, it became obvious that the species S. antarctica and S. jeonii and a third species, Sejongia marina, were most closely related (>95.0 % similarity) to some Chryseobacterium species (e.g. Chryseobacterium hominis, C. formosense and C. haifense). In addition, there is no evidence for clear phenotypic (i.e. chemotaxonomic) differences between these organisms that justifies their assignment to different genera. For these reasons, a proposal is made to transfer these species to the genus Chryseobacterium as Chryseobacterium antarcticum comb. nov. (type strain AT1013T =JCM 12381T =IMSNU 14040T =KCTC 12225T), Chryseobacterium jeonii comb. nov. (type strain AT1047T =JCM 12382T =IMSNU 14049T =KCTC 12226T) and Chryseobacterium marinum comb. nov. (type strain IMCC3228T =KCCM 42689T =NBRC 103143T) on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data and published phenotypic data.
A facultatively anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, filamentous bacterium, designated JC2469T, was isolated from tidal flat sediment in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and its closest taxonomic relative was Cytophaga fermentans NCIMB 2218T (89.6 % sequence similarity). Cells appeared as filaments during exponential growth, but became fragmented to rods at stationary phase. Spherical cells were also observed in aged cultures. Strain JC2469T contained iso-C15 : 0 (56.2 %) and MK-7 as the predominant fatty acid and respiratory quinone, respectively. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, the isolate showed substantial differences from other genera. The phylogenetic and physiological data of the present study strongly suggest that the isolate represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Marinifilum fragile gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinifilum fragile is JC2469T (=IMSNU 14138T =KCTC 22488T =JCM 15579T).