A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium, designated CL-SS4T, was isolated from crude-oil-contaminated seawater from the west coast of Korea and was investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain CL-SS4T grew optimally at 25–30 °C, at pH 6.8–7.7 and in the presence of 2–3 % sea salts. The major fatty acids were iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1 G. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content was 50.7 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CL-SS4T revealed that it was a member of the genus Muricauda, sharing 95.7–96.9 % sequence similarity with the type strains of Muricauda species and being most closely related to Muricauda aquimarina SW-63T. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain CL-SS4T formed a deep lineage related to the genus Muricauda. Strain CL-SS4T was distinguishable from recognized Muricauda species on the basis of differential phenotypic characteristics and DNA G+C content. Based on these results, it is proposed that strain CL-SS4T represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda olearia sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Muricauda is also proposed. The type strain is CL-SS4T (=KCCM 90075T=JCM 15563T).
Two anaerobic, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rods, designated YIT 11840T and YIT 11841T, were isolated from human faeces. The organisms were catalase-negative, produced succinic and acetic acids as end products of glucose metabolism and had DNA G+C contents of approximately 48–49 mol%. Although the phenotypic characteristics of these two strains were very similar, analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they are only distantly related (93.8 %), indicating that they represent two different species. A comparative sequence analysis revealed that these two species are members of the family ‘Prevotellaceae’ but are phylogenetically distant (<88 % sequence similarity) from the known genera belonging to this family, including Prevotella, Hallela and Xylanibacter. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological tests, strains YIT 11840T and YIT 11841T represent two novel species of a new genus, for which the names Paraprevotella clara gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIT 11840T =JCM 14859T =DSM 19731T), the type species, and Paraprevotella xylaniphila sp. nov. (type strain YIT 11841T =JCM 14860T =DSM 19681T) are proposed.
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain, designated XDT-1T, was isolated from plant residue from a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Haemin was required for growth. The strain utilized xylan as well as various sugars including arabinose, xylose, glucose, mannose, cellobiose, raffinose, starch and pectin. The strain produced acetate, propionate and succinate from saccharides in the presence of haemin. The optimum pH for growth was approximately 7.2 and the optimum growth temperature was 30–35 °C. The strain was sensitive to bile. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, MK-10(H0) was the major respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 38.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strain in the phylum Bacteroidetes. The closest phylogenetic neighbour of strain XDT-1T was Bacteroides ovatus NCTC 11153T, with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.2 %. On the basis of data from the phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, strain XDT-1T represents a novel species of the genus Bacteroides, for which the name Bacteroides graminisolvens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XDT-1T (=JCM 15093T =DSM 19988T).
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain R2A36-4T, was isolated from greenhouse soil and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain represented a novel member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae. Its nearest phylogenetic neighbour was the type strain of [Flexibacter] canadensis CIP 104802T (93.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Strain R2A36-4T and [F.] canadensis CIP 104802T fell in a distinct cluster within the family Sphingobacteriaceae. Strain R2A36-4T contained MK-7 as the predominant quinone. Strain R2A36-4T and [F.] canadensis CIP 104802T had iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 and C15 : 1 ω6c as the major fatty acids. Strain R2A36-4T could be distinguished from [F.] canadensis on the basis of several physiological properties and fatty acid compositions. Based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain R2A36-4T represents a novel species within a new genus, for which the name Solitalea koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Solitalea koreensis is strain R2A36-4T (=KACC 12953T=DSM 21342T). It is also proposed that [F.] canadensis be transferred to this genus as Solitalea canadensis comb. nov. (type strain UASM 9DT=ATCC 29591T=CIP 104802T=DSM 3403T=NBRC 15130T=JCM 21819T=KACC 13276T=LMG 8368T).
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, moderately thermophilic, rod-shaped bacterium, CC-MHSW-2T, was isolated from a coastal hot spring of Green Island (Lutao), located off Taituang, Taiwan. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that it shared <93.2 % sequence similarity with Aquimarina species. The organism was unable to produce acid from carbohydrates, but it could utilize a number of organic acids and amino acids. Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c) were the predominant fatty acids. This fatty acid profile distinguished the isolate from members of the genera Aquimarina, Tamlana, Zhouia, Leeuwenhoekiella and Cellulophaga. The DNA G+C content of strain CC-MHSW-2T was 39.7±1 mol%. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CC-MHSW-2T represents a novel genus and species in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Lutaonella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-MHSW-2T (=KCTC 22538T =JCM 15069T).