Bacillus mucilaginosus and Bacillus edaphicus were reclassified based on their 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, DNA–DNA hybridization, fatty acid methyl esters and other taxonomic characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences indicated that strains of B. mucilaginosus and B. edaphicus were members of the genus Paenibacillus, with over 90.4 % and 70.3 % sequence similarity, respectively. Their DNA G+C contents were 54.5–56.8 mol%. The DNA–DNA relatedness values of B. edaphicus VKPM B-7517T with B. mucilaginosus KNP414 and B. mucilaginosus CGMCC 1.236 were 89.2 % and 88.7 %, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone of B. mucilaginosus and B. edaphicus was MK-7 (94.1–95.7 %). The peptidoglycan type was A1γ (meso-diaminopimelic acid) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1 ω11c and C16 : 0. Phenotypic features and fatty acid profiles supported the similarity of B. mucilaginosus and B. edaphicus to Paenibacillus validus CCTCC 95016T and confirmed their relationship with members of the genus Paenibacillus. Therefore, it is proposed that Bacillus mucilaginosus and Bacillus edaphicus be transferred to the genus Paenibacillus as Paenibacillus mucilaginosus comb. nov. (type strain HSCC 1605T=VKPM B-7519T=VKM B-1480DT=CIP 105815T=KCTC 3870T) and Paenibacillus edaphicus comb. nov. (type strain VKPM B-7517T=DSM 12974T=CIP 105814T), respectively.
A Gram-variable, motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, ASL-1T, was isolated from a marine saltern located on the coast of the Yellow Sea, Korea. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ASL-1T clustered with Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius YKJ-13T and that this cluster joined the clade comprising the type strains of two Marinibacillus species. Strain ASL-1T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.3 % to J. alimentarius YKJ-13T and 96.5 % to the type strains of Marinibacillus marinus and Marinibacillus campisalis. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain ASL-1T were similar to those of one or two of the genera Jeotgalibacillus and Marinibacillus. The peptidoglycan type was A1α linked directly through l-lysine as the diamino acid. Strain ASL-1T contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone with the presence of a significant amount of MK-8. The predominant fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 42.9 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain ASL-1T could be differentiated from J. alimentarius and the two Marinibacillus species. On the basis of the data presented, strain ASL-1T represents a novel species within the genus Jeotgalibacillus, for which the name Jeotgalibacillus salarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ASL-1T (=KCTC 13257T=CCUG 56751T). It is also proposed that Marinibacillus marinus and Marinibacillus campisalis be reclassified as Jeotgalibacillus marinus comb. nov. (type strain 581T=DSM 1297T=ATCC 29841T=CCUG 28884T=CIP 103308T=LMG 6930T) and Jeotgalibacillus campisalis comb. nov. (type strain SF-57T=KCCM 41644T=JCM 11810T), respectively.
Three xylanase-producing alkaliphilic strains, SU1T, 36AC4 and 36AC6, were isolated from the guts of larvae of the Japanese horned beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis). The isolates stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, spore-forming, non-motile and rod-shaped and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 9. They contained MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of the strains were 37.4–37.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Bacillus. Although their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the alkaliphilic species Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus and B. alcalophilus was 97 %, the novel isolates formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic trees and DNA–DNA relatedness values to the type strains of these species were less than 30 %. Results of physiological and biochemical tests, including salt preference, enabled these strains to be differentiated phenotypically from described Bacillus species. Therefore, strains SU1T, 36AC4 and 36AC6 represent a novel species for which the name Bacillus trypoxylicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SU1T (=NBRC 102646T =KCTC 13244T).
An obligately anaerobic, xylanolytic, extremely thermophilic bacterium, strain JW/HY-331T, was isolated from sheep faeces collected from a farm at the University of Georgia, USA. Cells of strain JW/HY-331T stained Gram-positive and were catalase-negative, non-motile rods. Single terminal endospores (0.4–0.6 μm in diameter) swelled the mother cell. Growth ranges were 44–77 °C (optimum 70 °C at pH70 °C 7.2) and pH70 °C 5.9–8.6 (optimum 7.2 at 70 °C). Salt tolerance was 0–2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. No growth was observed at or below 42 °C or at or above 79 °C or at pH70 °C 5.7 and below or 8.9 and above. In the presence of 0.3 % yeast extract and 0.1 % tryptone, strain JW/HY-331T utilized xylose, glucose, galactose, cellobiose, raffinose and xylan as carbon and energy sources, but not dextran, soluble potato starch, CM-cellulose, cellulose powder, casein or Casamino acids. Fermentation products from glucose were lactate, acetate, ethanol, CO2 and H2. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.4 mol% (HPLC). Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. No respiratory quinones were detected. The cell-wall structure was a single layer (Gram-type positive) of the peptidoglycan type A1γ; the cell-wall sugars were galactose and mannose. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, ‘Catabacter hongkongensis’ HKU16 (85.4 % similarity), Caloramator fervidus ATCC 43204T (84.2 %) and Caloranaerobacter azorensis MV1087T (83.4 %) were the closest relatives, but they were only distantly related to strain JW/HY-331T. On the basis of physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, isolate JW/HY-331T (=DSM 21659T =ATCC BAA-1711T) is proposed as the type strain of Caldicoprobacter oshimai gen. nov., sp. nov., placed in Caldicoprobacteraceae fam. nov. within the order Clostridiales of the phylum Firmicutes.
Two unidentified Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms were recovered from pigs and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies confirmed this identification and showed that the nearest phylogenetic relatives of the unknown cocci were Streptococcus plurextorum 1956-02T and Streptococcus suis NCTC 10234T (97.9 and 96.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The new isolates were related most closely to S. suis CIP 103217T based on rpoB gene sequence analysis (<8 % sequence divergence). DNA–DNA pairing studies showed that one of the unidentified strains (2923-03T) displayed DNA relatedness values of 26.6 and 27.2 % with S. plurextorum CECT 7308T and S. suis NCTC 10234T, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown isolates from pigs be classified in the genus Streptococcus as members of Streptococcus porci sp. nov., with the type strain 2923-03T (=CECT 7374T =CCUG 55896T).
We previously isolated five strains of putative lactobacilli from the faeces of a thoroughbred horse (a 4-year-old male). Of the five strains, four were identified as members of existing Lactobacillus species; however, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the fifth isolate, DI70T, showed approximately 97 % identity (1325/1366 bp) with the type strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Therefore, we considered the possibility that DI70T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus. Cells of strain DI70T were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. In phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain DI70T formed a subcluster in the L. delbrueckii phylogenetic group and was closely related to L. delbrueckii, Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus jensenii. However, analysis of DNA–DNA relatedness showed that DI70T was genetically distinct from its phylogenetic relatives. The isolate also exhibited distinct biochemical and physiological characteristics when compared with its phylogenetic relatives. It required anaerobic conditions for growth on agar medium. The results indicate that isolate DI70T indeed represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which we propose the name Lactobacillus equicursoris sp. nov. The type strain is DI70T (=JCM 14600T =DSM 19284T).
A bacterial strain designated SBR5T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate within the genus Paenibacillus, being most closely related to Paenibacillus graminis RSA19T (98.1 % similarity). The isolate was a Gram-reaction-variable, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, with spores in a terminal position in cells. Starch was utilized and dihydroxyacetone and catalase were produced. Strain SBR5T displayed plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria characteristics: the ability to fix nitrogen and to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid. The DNA G+C content was 55.1 mol%. Chemotaxonomic analysis of the isolated strain revealed that MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, while the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain SBR5T and P. graminis RSA19T, Paenibacillus odorifer TOD45T and Paenibacillus borealis KK19T were 43, 35 and 28 %, respectively. These DNA relatedness data and the results of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain SBR5T should be considered as the nitrogen-fixing type strain of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus riograndensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SBR5T (=CCGB 1313T =CECT 7330T).
The taxonomic position of strain JCM 2765T isolated from fermented cane molasses in Thailand was reinvestigated. Strain JCM 2765T was originally identified as representing Lactobacillus buchneri on the basis of biochemical and physiological characteristics. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain JCM 2765T demonstrated a low level of similarity with the type strain of L. buchneri (92.5 %) and high levels with those of Lactobacillus collinoides (97.6 %) and Lactobacillus paracollinoides (98.0 %). Ribotyping was applied to investigate the relationships between strain JCM 2765T, L. collinoides and L. paracollinoides. The dendrogram based on ribotyping patterns showed one cluster for six strains of L. paracollinoides, and that strain JCM 2765T and L. collinoides JCM 1123T were each independent. Based on additional phenotypic findings and DNA–DNA hybridization results, strain JCM 2765T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus similis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JCM 2765T (=LMG 23904T).