A rod-shaped Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, aerobic and fucoidan-digesting strain, designated TC2T, was isolated from marine algae collected from the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk at Abashiri, Hokkaido, Japan. The bacterium formed yellow, translucent, circular and convex colonies. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, with the highest sequence similarities of 97.1 to 97.3 % to the type strains of Flavobacterium frigidarium, Flavobacterium frigoris, Flavobacterium limicola and Flavobacterium psychrolimnae. DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain TC2T and the above-mentioned species were lower than 28 %. The genomic DNA G+C content was 33.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (which comprises iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c). Strain TC2T could be differentiated from related species by several phenotypic characteristics. Thus, on the basis of these results, strain TC2T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TC2T (=NBRC 102673T =CIP 109574T).
An aerobic, yellow-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative bacterium, designated strain H7T, was isolated from sediment of Gazwa stream in Jinju city, South Korea. Cells of strain H7T were non-motile, straight rods that produced flexirubin pigments and showed catalase- and oxidase activities. Strain H7T contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) as the main fatty acids and menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C content of strain H7T was 37.2 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain H7T formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Flavobacterium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the novel strain was most closely related to Flavobacterium limicola ST-82T and Flavobacterium resistens BD-b365T with 97.2 % and 97.0 % gene sequence similarities, respectively. The DNA–DNA relatedness of the novel strain with these species was only 18 % and 14 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic data and molecular properties, strain H7T represents a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium fluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H7T (=KACC 12818T=DSM 19978T).
A novel marine, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated CNU004T, was isolated from a seawater sample collected on the coastline of Jeju Island, South Korea. The strain was strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding and oxidase- and catalase-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CNU004T belongs to a distinct lineage in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CNU004T exhibited levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 93.8–93.9 % to its nearest phylogenetic neighbours, members of the genera Gaetbulibacter, Yeosuana and Algibacter. The new isolate required sea salts or artificial seawater for growth. The optimum ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 30–35 °C and pH 7.0–8.0. The DNA G+C content of strain CNU004T was 37.7 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. Menaquinone-6 was the major respiratory quinone. Zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid pigment produced, and flexirubin-type pigments were not produced. Strain CNU004T was able to degrade starch and agar. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and on the phylogenetic evidence presented, strain CNU004T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Hyunsoonleella jejuensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Hyunsoonleella jejuensis sp. nov. is CNU004T (=KCTC 22242T =DSM 21035T).
Two Gram-staining-negative bacterial strains, designated 3A10T and ECP37T, were isolated from sediment samples collected from an industrially contaminated site in northern Portugal. These two organisms were rod-shaped, non-motile, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive and formed yellow colonies. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The G+C content of the DNA of strains 3A10T and ECP37T was 43 and 34 mol%, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone of the two strains was MK-6. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strains 3A10T and ECP37T were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae and were related phylogenetically to the genus Chryseobacterium. Strain 3A10T showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.2 and 96.6 % to the type strains of Chryseobacterium antarcticum and Chryseobacterium jeonii, respectively; strain ECP37T showed 97.3 % similarity to the type strain of Chryseobacterium marinum. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments revealed levels of genomic relatedness of <70 % between strains 3A10T and ECP37T and between these two strains and the type strains of C. marinum, C. antarcticum and C. jeonii, justifying their classification as representing two novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium. The names proposed for these organisms are Chryseobacterium palustre sp. nov. (type strain 3A10T =LMG 24685T =NBRC 104928T) and Chryseobacterium humi sp. nov. (type strain ECP37T =LMG 24684T =NBRC 104927T).
A Gram-stain-negative, heterotrophic, aerobic, non-spore-forming and non-motile bacterial strain, designated LM5T, was isolated from activated sludge from a sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of effluents contaminated by malachite green. The taxonomy of strain LM5T was studied by phenotypic and phylogenetic methods. Strain LM5T formed orange colonies on R2A and YP plates. Cells were rods, 0.4–0.6 μm in diameter and 0.8–1.2 μm in length. Growth occurred at 10–35 °C (optimum, 20–25 °C), at pH 5.5–9.5 (optimum, pH 6.5–7.5) and in the presence of 0–2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5 %). Oxidase and catalase activities were present. Flexirubin-type pigments were present, but extracellular glycans were absent. MK-6 was the major respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (28.3 %) and iso-C17 : 1 ω9c (13.8 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain LM5T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium with highest sequence similarity to Flavobacterium soli DS-6T (93.2 %) and Flavobacterium lindanitolerans IP-10T (92.9 %). Together with F. lindanitolerans IP-10T, strain LM5T formed a distinct lineage in the phylogenetic tree. The DNA G+C content was 52±0.6 mol% (HPLC), which is significantly higher than that of other species of the genus Flavobacterium (30–41 mol%). Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain LM5T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium caeni sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LM5T (=CGMCC 1.7031T=NBRC 104239T).