A novel xylan-degrading bacterium, designated XDB9T, was isolated from forest humus collected from Gyeryong Mountain in Korea. Cells were Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and endospore-forming rods. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XDB9T was most closely related to members of the genus Lysinibacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain XDB9T and the type strains of species of the genus Lysinibacillus ranged from 98.0 to 98.5 %. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type of strain XDB9T was A4α, which is based on l-Lys–d-Asp. Strain XDB9T contained iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω7c alcohol as the major fatty acids and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 37.2 mol%. The DNA–DNA hybridization results and differential phenotypic properties showed that strain XDB9T could be distinguished from recognized species of the genus Lysinibacillus. It was concluded that strain XDB9T represents a new taxon for which the name Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XDB9T (=KCTC 13423T=CCUG 57438T).
A Gram-variable, motile, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, ISL-24T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern of the Yellow Sea, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic study. Strain ISL-24T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0, at 30–37 °C and in the presence of 8 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the predominant fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 37.6 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ISL-24T fell within the genus Virgibacillus, clustering with Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964T and Virgibacillus necropolis LMG 19488T, with a bootstrap resampling value of 92.3 %, and exhibiting 97.3 and 97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, to these strains. Strain ISL-24T exhibited 94.8–96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the other Virgibacillus species. Mean DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain ISL-24T and V. carmonensis DSM 14868T and V. necropolis DSM 14866T were 11 and 19 %, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties of strain ISL-24T, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that this strain is different from recognized Virgibacillus species. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain ISL-24T represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus byunsanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ISL-24T (=KCTC 13259T =CCUG 56754T).
Four hydrogen-producing, aerotolerant, anaerobic bacterial strains isolated from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Three of the strains, designated BL-18, BL-19 and BL-20T, were found to be identical in 16S rRNA gene sequences and in phenotypic properties. Cells of these strains are Gram-positive-staining, spore-forming, motile rods with peritrichous flagella. Growth occurred at 15–40 °C, pH 5.0–10.0 and at NaCl concentrations up to 5 % (w/v). Acid was produced in fermentation of cellobiose, fructose, galactose (weak), glucose, maltose and salicin. Products of fermentation in PYG medium were acetate, butyrate, ethanol, formate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Dominant cellular fatty acids when grown in PYG medium were C13 : 0 iso, C16 : 0, C13 : 0 anteiso, C15 : 0 iso and C15 : 0 anteiso. The genomic DNA G+C content was 30.4 mol%. These isolates can be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic relative, the cluster I Clostridium species Clostridium frigidicarnis (97.2 % similar to the type strain in 16S rRNA gene sequence), on the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties. The other strain characterized in this study, BL-28T, was Gram-positive-staining with spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Growth occurred at 15–46 °C, pH 6.0–8.5 and at NaCl concentrations up to 3 % (w/v). Acid was produced from cellobiose, dextran, fructose (weak), glucose, maltose, salicin and trehalose. End products of PYG fermentation included acetate, butyrate, pyruvate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Dominant cellular fatty acids from cells grown in PYG medium at 30 °C were C14 : 0, C14 : 0 dimethyl aldehyde, C16 : 0 and C12 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 28.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BL-28T falls within cluster I of the genus Clostridium, but with ≤95.2 % identity with previously described species. On the basis of results presented here, strains BL-20T (=NRRL B-51348T =DSM 21757T) and BL-28T (=NRRL B-51352T =DSM 21758T) are proposed as the type strains of novel species of the genus Clostridium with the names Clostridium hydrogeniformans sp. nov. and Clostridium cavendishii sp. nov., respectively.
A novel facultatively anaerobic strain, designated GPTSA 19T, was isolated from a warm spring and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain behaved as Gram-negative in the Gram staining procedure but showed a Gram-positive reaction in the aminopeptidase test. The novel strain was a mesophilic rod with ellipsoidal endospores. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain showed closest similarity (96.0 %) with Paenibacillus motobuensis MC10T. The gene sequence similarity of the novel strain with other species of the genus Paenibacillus was <95.8 %. The novel strain also had PAEN 515F and 682F signature sequence stretches in the 16S rRNA gene that are usually found in most species of the genus Paenibacillus. The strain possessed anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acid and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), six unknown phospholipids (PLs), one aminophospholipid (PN), three glycolipids (GLs), two aminolipids (ALs), one aminophosphoglycolipid (APGL) and three unknown lipids (ULs). The polar lipid profile of the novel strain, especially as regards ALs, GLs and PLs, distinguished it from the recognized type species of the genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus polymyxa, as well as from its closest relative P. motobuensis. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the new strain merits the rank of a novel genus for which the name Fontibacillus gen. nov. is proposed. The type species of the new genus is Fontibacillus aquaticus gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strain GPTSA 19T (=MTCC 7155T=DSM 17643T).
A Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, ISL-17T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern of the Yellow Sea, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by means of a polyphasic study. Strain ISL-17T grew optimally at pH 8.5–9.0, at 37 °C and in the presence of approximately 10 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 48.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ISL-17T fell within the genus Alkalibacillus, clustering with Alkalibacillus salilacus BH163T with a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain ISL-17T exhibited 98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to A. salilacus BH163T and 95.8–96.5 % similarity to the type strains of the other Alkalibacillus species. The mean DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain ISL-17T and A. salilacus KCTC 3916T was 19 %. The phenotypic properties of strain ISL-17T, together with its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, enable this strain to be differentiated from recognized Alkalibacillus species. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain ISL-17T represents a novel species within the genus Alkalibacillus, for which the name Alkalibacillus flavidus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is ISL-17T (=KCTC 13258T =CCUG 56753T).