Environmental DNA surveys have revealed a great deal of hidden diversity within the Cercozoa. An investigation into the biodiversity of heterotrophic flagellates in marine benthic habitats of British Columbia, Canada, demonstrated the presence of several undescribed taxa with morphological features that resemble the cercozoan genera Cryothecomonas and Protaspis. Nine novel species of marine interstitial cercozoans are described that are distributed into five genera, four of which are new. Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit rDNA sequences derived from two uncultured isolates of Protaspis obliqua and nine novel cercozoan species (within four novel genera) provided organismal anchors that helped establish the cellular identities of several different environmental sequence clades. These data, however, also showed that the rarity of distinctive morphological features in cryomonads, and other groups of cercozoans, makes the identification and systematics of the group very difficult. Therefore, a DNA barcoding approach was applied as a diagnostic tool for species delimitation that used a 618 bp region at the 5′ end of the SSU rDNA sequence. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region showed high intergeneric sequence divergences of about 7 % and very low intraspecific sequence divergences of 0–0.5 %; phylogenetic analyses inferred from this barcoding region showed very similar tree topologies to those inferred from the full-length sequence of the gene. Overall, this study indicated that the 618 bp barcoding region of SSU rDNA sequences is a useful molecular signature for understanding the biodiversity and interrelationships of marine benthic cercozoans.
Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef.