An aerobic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated 0533T, was isolated from frozen soil from the China No. 1 glacier. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence demonstrated that strain 0533T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and exhibited 97.1–98.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity with its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Strain 0533T exhibited phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics common to the genus Flavobacterium: menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the predominant quinone and iso-C15 : 0, C17 : 1 ω6c, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C15 : 1 ω6c, iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH were the major fatty acids (>5 %). The DNA G+C content was 32.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, a novel species, Flavobacterium sinopsychrotolerans sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 0533T (=CGMCC 1.8704T =JCM 16398T).
A novel bacterial strain, designated M2T2B15T, was isolated from fermented bovine products and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Colonies were reddish pink and circular with entire margins. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive rods that lacked flagella and were motile by gliding. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain M2T2B15T was related most closely to Larkinella insperata LMG 22510T (94.4 % similarity) but shared <87 % similarity with other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 1 ω5c, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminophospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the DNA of strain M2T2B15T was 52 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data presented clearly indicate that strain M2T2B15T represents a novel species of the genus Larkinella, for which the name Larkinella bovis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M2T2B15T (=KACC 14040T =NBRC 106324T). Emended descriptions of the genus Larkinella and of Larkinella insperata Vancanneyt et al. 2006 are also proposed.
A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated GSW-R14T, was isolated from seawater of Geoje Island in the South Sea, Korea. Strain GSW-R14T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GSW-R14T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, joining Flavobacterium gelidilacus LMG 21477T by a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain GSW-R14T exhibited 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to F. gelidilacus LMG 21477T and similarities of 91.2–95.2 % to other members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain GSW-R14T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The fatty acid profile of strain GSW-R14T was similar to that of F. gelidilacus LMG 21477T. The DNA G+C content of strain GSW-R14T was 31.4 mol% and its DNA–DNA relatedness with F. gelidilacus LMG 21477T was 31 %. Strain GSW-R14T could be distinguished from F. gelidilacus and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, strain GSW-R14T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GSW-R14T (=KCTC 22802T =CCUG 58402T).
A Gram-staining-negative, pink bacterium, designated strain BUZ 2T, was isolated from coastal mud from the North Sea (Fedderwardersiel, Germany). Cells were rod-shaped and able to form multicellular filaments. Growth after 7 days was observed at 10–40 °C, at pH 6–8 and with 0–0.5 % NaCl. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BUZ 2T is a member of the family Cytophagaceae, its closest neighbours being Rudanella lutea 5715S-11T, Spirosoma linguale LMG 10896T and Spirosoma panaciterrae Gsoil 1519T (87.8, 86.4 and 86.1 % sequence similarity, respectively). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 1 ω5c and iso-C15 : 0. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified aminophospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 56.5 mol%. On the basis of this polyphasic study, we propose that strain BUZ 2T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Fibrella aestuarina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Fibrella aestuarina is BUZ 2T (=DSM 22563T =CCUG 58136T). An emended description of the genus Rudanella is also proposed.
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain F44-8T, which was isolated from a crude-oil-degrading consortium, enriched from marine sediment of the Beibu Gulf, PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain F44-8T showed highest similarities to those of Flavobacterium frigoris LMG 21922T (93.3 %), Flavobacterium terrae R2A1-13T (93.3 %) and Flavobacterium gelidilacus LMG 21477T (93.1 %). Sequence similarities to other members of the genus Flavobacterium were <93.0 %. The dominant fatty acids of strain F44-8T were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain F44-8T was 38.6 mol%. These results are consistent with characteristics of members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain F44-8T could, however, be readily distinguished from all known Flavobacterium species by a number of phenotypic features. Therefore, according to the phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence data, strain F44-8T represents a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium beibuense sp. nov. is proposed (type strain F44-8T =CCTCC AB 209067T =LMG 25233T =MCCC 1A02877T).