Three isolates, typified by Pro94 Y29T (=JCM 13290T =CBS 9278T =DBVPG 7841T), that represent a novel species, Rhodotorula arctica sp. nov., were studied. R. arctica differed from its only close relative, Bensingtonia yamatoana, by requiring thiamine and by failing to assimilate maltose and quinate, but strain Pro94 Y29T could be most readily identified using the rDNA sequence of the LSU D1/D2 region, which differed from that of B. yamatoana CBS 7423T at four positions, and the ITS sequence, which differed at nine positions. One R. arctica isolate, Pro94 Y56 (=JCM 13292 =CBS 9280 =DBVPG Y7843), was unique in requiring either l-arginine or l-citrulline as a source of nitrogen.
Two yeast strains (FMCC Y-1T and FMCC Y-2) were recovered during a survey of the yeast biota associated with fermenting black olives, collected from an olive tree (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Conservolea’) orchard in Central Greece. Phylogenetic analysis based on rRNA gene sequences (18S, 26S, and 5.8S–ITS) indicated that the two strains represent a separate species within the Candida membranifaciens clade, in close relation to Candida blattariae NRRL Y-27703T. Electrophoretic karyotyping and physiological analysis support the affiliation of the two strains to a novel species as Candida olivae sp. nov. The novel strains are conspecific with two Candida sp. strains previously isolated from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal fields [Gadanho & Sampaio (2005). Microb Ecol 50, 408–417], indicating that Candida olivae sp. nov. may occupy diverse ecological niches. FMCC Y-1T (=CBS 11171T =ATCC MYA-4568T) is the type strain.
The algal flora of subaerial habitats in the tropics remains largely unexplored, despite the fact that it potentially encompasses a wealth of new evolutionary diversity. Here we present a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of an autosporic coccoid green alga isolated from decaying wood in a natural forest in Singapore. Depending on culture conditions, this alga formed globular to irregularly oval solitary cells. Autosporulation was the only mode of reproduction observed. The cell periphery was filled with numerous vacuoles, and a single parietal chloroplast contained a conspicuous pyrenoid surrounded by a bipartite starch envelope. The cell wall was composed of a thick inner layer and a thin trilaminar outer layer, and the cell surface was ornamented with a few delicate ribs. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences placed our strain in the family Scenedesmaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae) as a strongly supported sister branch of the genus Desmodesmus. Analyses of an alternative phylogenetic marker widely used for the Scenedesmaceae, the ITS2 region, confirmed that the strain is distinct from any scenedesmacean alga sequenced to date, but is related to the genus Desmodesmus, despite lacking the defining phenotypic features of Desmodesmus (cell wall with four sporopolleninic layers ornamented with peculiar submicroscopic structures). Collectively, our results establish that we identified a novel, previously undocumented, evolutionary lineage of scenedesmacean algae necessitating its description as a new species in a new genus. We propose it be named Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov. A cryopreserved holotype specimen has been deposited into the Culture Collection of Algae of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (CAUP) as CAUP C-H8001.
A strain of a novel pathogenic, achlorophyllic alga belonging to the genus Prototheca was isolated from the inflamed skin of a patient with protothecosis in a Japanese hospital. The pathogen was detected and isolated in biopsy specimens by histopathology and culture-based examination. Analyses of the nuclear 18S rDNA gene and 26S rDNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this strain represents a novel species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Prototheca wickerhamii and Auxenochlorella protothecoides. This strain grew well at 28–30 °C, showed slow and weak growth at 37 °C, and no growth at 40 °C. This strain grew in vitamin-free medium and assimilated acetate (pH 5.1), l-arabinose and soluble starch as a carbon source. The taxonomic description of Prototheca cutis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM 15793T =CBS 11262T =DSM 22084T) as a pathogen of dermatitis.
The morphology, infraciliature and silverline system of two marine Euplotes, Euplotes sinicus sp. nov. and Euplotes parabalteatus sp. nov., isolated from seawater near Qingdao, China, were investigated. E. sinicus is characterized by having conspicuous dorsal ridges, a single marginal cirrus and a silverline system of the double-patella-I type. E. parabalteatus is an extremely small form (only about 35 μm long) with 6–7 dorsal kineties and a silverline system of the double-eurystomus type. Small subunit (SSU) rRNA-based phylogenetic trees were constructed with three different methods and these firmly demonstrated that the novel species represent two distinct phylogenetic lineages within the genus Euplotes, branching as a sister group to all other sequenced congeners. In addition, the SSU rRNA gene of another rare, morphologically similar form, Euplotes rariseta, was sequenced. This revealed the phylogenetic position of E. rariseta to be basal to one of the major groups of Euplotes rather than close to Euplotes nobilii.