A Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain E407-8T, was isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain E407-8T was affiliated with the genus Rheinheimera, sharing the highest sequence similarity with Rheinheimera pacifica KMM 1406T (97.5 %) and Rheinheimera aquimaris SW-353T (97.4 %) and showing less than 97 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Rheinheimera species. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness of strain E407-8T to R. pacifica DSM 17616T and R. aquimaris JCM 14331T were 25.2 % (25.3 % in the duplicate measurement) and 9.4 % (6.5 %), respectively. The bacterium could grow at 10–48 °C (optimum 37 °C) and in the presence of 0–8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5–2.5 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain E407-8T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C17 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 51.0 mol%. Based on the results of our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain E407-8T represents a novel species in the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimera nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E407-8T ( = CCTCC AB 209089T = KACC 14030T). An emended description of the genus Rheinheimera Brettar et al. 2002 emend. Merchant et al. 2007 is also proposed.
A Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, motile, neutrophilic bacterium, designated strain BH3T, was isolated from wastewater of a sequential batch reactor treating wastewater taken from a leather plant. The isolate grew in 0–8 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 6–9 and at 4–45 °C. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that strain BH3T had characteristics typical of members of the genus Sphingomonas, such as the presence of sphingolipids, Q-10 and 2-hydroxymyristic acid and the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. The presence of C18 : 1ω7c (39.2 %) and C16 : 0 (11.2 %) as major fatty acids, C14 : 0 2-OH (20.6 %) as the major 2-hydroxy fatty acid and homospermidine as the major polyamine indicated that strain BH3T belonged to the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain BH3T was 65.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and closely related members of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto ranged from 92.6 to 97.3 %, the highest sequence similarities being to Sphingomonas melonis DSM 14444T (97.3 %) and Sphingomonas aquatilis DSM 15581T (97.3 %). Based on its phenotypic characteristics and the results of DNA–DNA hybridization studies and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain BH3T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto, for which the name Sphingomonas rubra sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BH3T ( = CGMCC 1.9113T = JCM 16230T).
Five strains representing a novel family within the Gammaproteobacteria were isolated from the estuarine grasses Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus. All strains were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, short, motile, polar monotrichous rods that were mesophilic, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, had DNA G+C contents of 41.5–44.4 mol% and required seawater salts or NaCl. Growth was observed at pH 3.5–8.0. Polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, aminophospholipid, phospholipids and unidentified aminolipids were found in the representative strain S-G2-2T. The major menaquinone and ubiquinone were MK-8 (100 %) and Q-8 (93 %), respectively. Predominant fatty acids present were C12 : 0 aldehyde and/or unknown fatty acid 10.9525 (MIDI designation) and/or iso-C16 : 1 I/C14 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c. The nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strains were very similar (99–100 % similarity), and the strains were identified as members of the same species by DNA–DNA relatedness measurements. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains formed a monophyletic lineage within the order Alteromonadales. All five strains fixed N2. Analysis of partial nifH gene sequences also revealed a monophyletic lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, and the sequences were dissimilar to those of any previously described diazotroph. Differences between the novel strains and other members of the Alteromonadales include the inability to produce cytochrome oxidase. The novel strains were metabolically versatile. On the basis of the information described above, the new genus and species Celerinatantimonas diazotrophica gen. nov., sp. nov. are proposed to accommodate the five strains within a new family, Celerinatantimonadaceae fam. nov. The type strain of Celerinatantimonas diazotrophica is S-G2-2T ( = ATCC BAA-1368T = DSM 18577T).
A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-58T, was isolated from a soil sample from Dokdo, an island of Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-58T fell within the family Xanthomonadaceae. The isolate showed 96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest phylogenetic neighbour, Lysobacter niastensis GH41-7T, and 93.4–95.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other members of the genus Lysobacter. Strain DS-58T contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 68.1 mol%. Strain DS-58T could be distinguished phenotypically from type strains of closely related species of the genus Lysobacter and phylogenetically from all members of the genus Lysobacter. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain DS-58T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter dokdonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-58T ( = KCTC 12822T = DSM 17958T).
The bacterial genus Yersinia belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and comprises 15 species. Species of the genus Yersinia are usually identified by their phenotypic characteristics. Thus, it is essential to establish a complete phenotypic classification for all speciesof the genus Yersinia. The species Yersinia massiliensis was proposed in 2008, based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, hsp60, rpoB and sodA gene sequences and some distinguishing phenotypic characteristics. In this study, four Yersinia strains classified as Y. massiliensis based on the sequencing of the loci mentioned above were subjected to a more detailed phenotypic characterization. This characterization revealed differences in the results of four tests previously reported as diagnostic for Y. massiliensis and the results of 18 additional tests provided new information about the biochemical diversity of this species. In the light of the results of the phenotypic characteristics of the four strains of Y. massiliensis, an emended description of Y. massiliensis is presented.
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, strain 2622T, was isolated from gamma-irradiated soil sampled from the Taklimakan desert in Xinjiang, China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain 2622T formed a distinct lineage in the family Rhodospirillaceae and shared 91.7 and 90.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest relatives, the type strains of Skermanella xinjiangensis and Skermanella aerolata, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain 2622T was 71.4 mol% and the isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, strain 2622T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodospirillaceae, for which the name Desertibacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desertibacter roseus is strain 2622T ( = CCTCC AB 208152T = KCTC 22436T).
A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid-shaped strain designated S 113T was isolated from a polluted-soil sample collected in Jiangsu Province, China. A polyphasic taxonomic study including phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and determination of phenotypic characteristics was performed on the new isolate. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was 96.8 %, with Hansschlegelia plantiphila S1 T. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was about 65.7 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments showed 44.9 % relatedness for strain S 113T with its closest relative, H. plantiphila NCIMB 14035T. The dominant phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The results of our polyphasic taxonomic analysis indicate that strain S 113T represents a novel species within the genus Hansschlegelia, for which the name Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S 113T ( = DSM 18984T = CCTCC AB 206143T = KCTC 12880T).
A bacterial strain, designated SW-3T, was isolated from the reef-building coral Isopora palifera, from Southern Taiwan, and was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain SW-3T were Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of monopolar flagella and formed cream–white colonies. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SW-3T belonged to the genus Paracoccus and its most closely related neighbours were P. aestuarii B7T, P. homiensis DD-R11T, P. marinus KKL-A5T, P. denitrificans DSM 413T and P. zeaxanthinifaciens R-1512T, with sequence similarities of 96.8, 96.6, 96.1 , 95.8 and 94.9 %, respectively. Strain SW-3T exhibited optimal growth at 25–30 °C and pH 9–10 and in 3–5 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c; 75 %). The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and several uncharacterized polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain SW-3T was 63.7 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of this isolate from recognized species of the genus Paracoccus. It is evident from the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data that strain SW-3T represents a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus isoporae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW-3T ( = LMG 25205T = BCRC 17967T).
A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain R-40503T, was isolated from mucus of the reef-builder coral Mussismilia hispida, located in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain R-40503T belongs to the genus Marinomonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of R-40503T was above 97 % with the type strains of Marinomonas vaga, M. basaltis, M. communis and M. pontica, and below 97 % with type strains of the other Marinomonas species. Strain R-40503T showed less than 35 % DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) with the type strains of the phylogenetically closest Marinomonas species, demonstrating that it should be classified into a novel species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses provided further evidence for the proposal of a novel species. Concurrently, a close genomic relationship between M. basaltis and M. communis was observed. The type strains of these two species showed 78 % DDH and 63 % AFLP pattern similarity. Their phenotypic features were very similar, and their DNA G+C contents were identical (46.3 mol%). Collectively, these data demonstrate unambiguously that Marinomonas basaltis is a later heterotypic synonym of Marinomonas communis. Several phenotypic features can be used to discriminate between Marinomonas species. The novel strain R-40503T is clearly distinguishable from its neighbours. For instance, it shows oxidase and urease activity, utilizes l-asparagine and has the fatty acid C12 : 1 3-OH but lacks C10 : 0 and C12 : 0. The name Marinomonas brasilensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain R-40503T ( = R-278T = LMG 25434T = CAIM 1459T). The DNA G+C content of strain R-40503T is 46.5 mol%.
A Gram-negative-staining, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, HD-28T, was isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea, Korea. Strain HD-28T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0 and 30 °C in the presence of 2–3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HD-28T was most closely related to species of the genus Ruegeria and exhibited 95.5–96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of Ruegeria species. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on gyrB gene sequences also showed that strain HD-28T fell within the cluster comprising recognized speciesof the genus Ruegeria, showing 77.5–83.9 % sequence similarity. Strain HD-28T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids detected in strain HD-28T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 57.9 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain HD-28T could be distinguished from recognized species of the genus Ruegeria. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain HD-28T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria faecimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HD-28T ( = KCTC 23044T = CCUG 58878T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (SV325T) was isolated from the sediment of a hypersaline lake located 4600 m above sea level (Laguna Vilama, Argentina). Strain SV325T formed cream to pink colonies, was motile and moderately halophilic, and tolerated NaCl concentrations of 1–25 % (w/v) with an optimum of 5–10 % (w/v). Growth occurred at 5–40 °C (optimum around 30 °C) and at pH 5.0–10.0 (optimum 7.0–8.0). The bacterium did not produce exopolysaccharides and stained positively for intracellular polyphosphate granules but not for poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates. It produced catalase and oxidase, reduced nitrate to nitrite, hydrolysed gelatin, did not produce acids from sugars and utilized a limited range of substrates as carbon and energy sources: acetate, caproate, fumarate, dl-β-hydroxybutyrate, malate, maleate, malonate and succinate. The predominant ubiquinones were Q-9 (92.5 %) and Q-8 (7.5 %), the major fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15:0 2-OH, and the DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SV325T belongs to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain SV325T from closely related species with validly published names. We therefore propose a novel species, Halomonas vilamensis sp. nov., with type strain SV325T ( = DSM 21020T = LMG 24332T).
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, aerobic bacterial strain, W3T, was isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-contaminated groundwater from Lucknow, India, and its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. Strain W3T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.8 % with Rhizobium selenitireducens B1T, followed by Rhizobium daejeonense L61T (97.7 %), Rhizobium radiobacter ATCC 19358T (97.5 %) and Blastobacter aggregatus IFAM 1003T (97.2 %). Strain W3T formed a monophyletic clade with Blastobacter aggregatus IFAM 1003T ( = DSM 1111T) in the cluster of species of the genus Rhizobium. Phylogenetic analyses of strain W3T using atpD and recA gene sequences confirmed the phylogenetic arrangements obtained by using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Hence, the taxonomic characterization of B. aggregatus DSM 1111T was also undertaken. Strains W3T and B. aggregatus DSM 1111T contained summed feature 8 (18 : 1ω7c and/or 18 : 1ω6c; 65.4 and 70.8 %, respectively) as the major fatty acid, characteristic of the genus Rhizobium. DNA–DNA relatedness of strain W3T with Rhizobium selenitireducens LMG 24075T, Rhizobium daejeonense DSM 17795T, Rhizobium radiobacter DSM 30147T and B. aggregatus DSM 1111T was 42, 34, 30 and 34 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strain W3T and B. aggregatus DSM 1111T were 62.3 and 62.7 mol%, respectively. A nifH gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase was detected in strain W3T but not in B. aggregatus DSM 1111T. Based on the results obtained by phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses, phenotypic characterization and DNA–DNA hybridization, it is concluded that strain W3T represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium rosettiformans sp. nov. is proposed (type strain W3T = CCM 7583T = MTCC 9454T). It is also proposed that Blastobacter aggregatus Hirsch and Müller 1986 be transferred to the genus Rhizobium as Rhizobium aggregatum comb. nov. (type strain IFAM 1003T = DSM 1111T = ATCC 43293T).
A Gram-negative bacterium, designated KIS13-15T, was isolated from soil in Korea. Cells were strictly aerobic rods and were motile with 1–3 subpolar flagella. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KIS13-15T belonged to the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria and was closely related to Nevskia soli GR15-1T (97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Nevskia ramosa Soe1T (96.8 %). Strain KIS13-15T exhibited 38 and 29 % DNA–DNA relatedness with N. soli KACC 11703T and N. ramosa DSM 11499T, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total) were C18 : 1ω7c (40.6 %) and C16 : 0 (12.4 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 8. DNA G+C content was 67.3 mol%. The phenotypic characterization combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA–DNA hybridization clearly classified strain KIS13-15T in a novel species of the genus Nevskia, for which the name Nevskia terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KIS13-15T ( = KACC 12736T = JCM 15425T).