Three Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms were isolated from the oral cavities of bears. The isolates were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed that the organisms were members of the genus Streptococcus, but they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus. The nearest phylogenetic relative of the new isolates was Streptococcus ratti ATCC 19645T (98.6 %), however, DNA–DNA hybridization analysis showed that the isolates displayed less than 15 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the type strain of S. ratti. Colonies of the novel strains grown on mitis salivarius agar showed an extracellular polysaccharide-producing colony morphology. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as Streptococcus ursoris sp. nov. The type strain of S. ursoris is NUM 1615T (=JCM 16316T=DSM 22768T).
A novel strictly anaerobic, moderately halophilic and mesophilic bacterium, designated strain SOL3f37T, was isolated from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil surrounding a deep petroleum environment located in south Tunisia. Cells of strain SOL3f37T stained Gram-positive and were motile, straight and spore-forming. Strain SOL3f37T had a typical Gram-positive-type cell-wall structure, unlike the thick, multilayered cell wall of its closest relative Clostridiisalibacter paucivorans. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (41 %), iso-C14 : 0 3-OH and/or iso-C15 : 0 dimethyl acetal (21.6 %), iso-C13 : 0 (4.4 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (3.9 %) and iso-C15 : 1 (2.8 %). Strain SOL3f37T grew between 20 and 48 °C (optimum 40 °C) and at pH 6.2–8.1 (optimum pH 6.9). Strain SOL3f37T required at least 0.5 g NaCl l−1 and grew in the presence of NaCl concentrations up to 150 g l−1 (optimum 40 g l−1). Yeast extract (2 g l−1) was required for degradation of pyruvate, fumarate, fructose, glucose and mannitol. Also, strain SOL3f37T grew heterotrophically on yeast extract, peptone and bio-Trypticase, but was unable to grow on Casamino acids. Sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, elemental sulfur, fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not reduced. The DNA G+C content was 30.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SOL3f37T was a member of the family Clostridiaceae in the order Clostridiales; strain SOL3f37T was related to members of various genera of the family Clostridiaceae. It exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (93.4 %) with Clostridiisalibacter paucivorans 37HS60T, 91.8 % with Thermohalobacter berrensis CTT3T and 91.7 % with Caloranaerobacter azorensis MV1087T. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic data, it is suggested that strain SOL3f37T represents a novel species in a new genus. The name Sporosalibacterium faouarense gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with SOL3f37T (=DSM 21485T =JCM 15487T) as the type strain of Sporosalibacterium faouarense.
Two novel thermophilic, spore-forming bacterial strains, T-11T and E-112T, were isolated from hot springs in Tengchong and Eryuan counties of Yunnan province in south-west China. The strains were Gram-stain-positive rods, occurring singly or in chains. Growth of strain T-11T was observed between 30 and 75 °C (optimum 50 °C) and at pH 7–11 (optimum pH 8.5), while the temperature range for strain E-112T was 35–70 °C (optimum 55 °C) and the pH range was 7.0–11.0 (optimum pH 8.0). The DNA G+C contents of strains T-11T and E-112T were 41.1 and 42.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the two strains were shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. The chemotaxonomic characteristics [predominant isoprenoid quinone menaquinone 7 (MK-7); major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0] also supported the affiliation of strains T-11T and E-112T to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA–DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains T-11T and E-112T from Anoxybacillus species with validly published names. Strains T-11T and E-112T therefore represent two novel species, for which the names Anoxybacillus tengchongensis sp. nov. (type strain T-11T =CCTCC AB209237T =KCTC 13721T) and Anoxybacillus eryuanensis sp. nov. (type strain E-112T =CCTCC AB209236T =KCTC 13720T) are proposed.
A xylan-degrading bacterium, strain X11-1T, was isolated from soil collected in Nan province, Thailand. The strain was characterized based on its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strain X11-1T was a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-7, anteiso-C15 : 0 (56.6 %) and C16 : 0 (14.0 %) were the predominant cellular fatty acids and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 51.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain X11-1T was affiliated to the genus Paenibacillus and was closely related to Paenibacillus naphthalenovorans KACC 11505T and Paenibacillus validus CCM 3894T, with 96.5 % sequence similarity. Therefore, the strain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus xylanisolvens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X11-1T (=KCTC 13042T =PCU 311T =TISTR 1829T).