A novel Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium was isolated from the NASA Phoenix Lander assembly clean room that exhibits 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to two strains isolated from a deep subsurface environment. All strains are rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria, whose endospores are resistant to UV radiation up to 500 J m−2. A polyphasic taxonomic study including traditional phenotypic tests, fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA–DNA hybridization analysis was performed to characterize these novel strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing convincingly grouped these novel strains within the genus Paenibacillus as a separate cluster from previously described species. The similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences among the novel strains was identical but only 98.1 to 98.5 % with their nearest neighbours Paenibacillus barengoltzii ATCC BAA-1209T and Paenibacillus timonensis CIP 108005T. The menaquinone MK-7 was dominant in these novel strains as shown in other species of the genus Paenibacillus. The DNA–DNA hybridization dissociation value was <45 % with the closest related species. The novel strains had DNA G+C contents of 51.9 to 52.8 mol%. Phenotypically, the novel strains can be readily differentiated from closely related species by the absence of urease and gelatinase and the production of acids from a variety of sugars including l-arabinose. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 as seen in P. barengoltzii and P. timonensis whereas the proportion of C16 : 0 was significantly different from the closely related species. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic results, it was concluded that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus phoenicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3PO2SAT ( = NRRL B-59348T = NBRC 106274T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93174T, was isolated from a salt field in Korea. Cells of this strain were rod-shaped and formed pale tangerine colonies and grew at pH 6.0–8.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0), at 15–45 °C (optimum 28–37 °C) and at salinities of 0–10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0–2 % NaCl). Some phenotypic characters allowed differentiation of strain YIM 93174T from its nearest phylogenetic relatives. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 93174T belongs to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting the highest level of sequence similarity with the type strain of Bacillus humi (95.7 %), followed by those of Bacillus alkalitelluris (94.9 %) and Bacillus litoralis (94.5 %). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1γ type, containing meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 36.9 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major polar lipids of strain YIM 93174T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and two unknown phospholipids. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, strain YIM 93174T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteolus sp. nov. is proposed, with YIM 93174T ( = DSM 22388T = KCTC 13210T = CCTCC AA 208068T) as the type strain.
A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain Be17T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Begonia semperflorens planted in Beijing Botanical Garden, PR China. Phylogenetic analyses based on a segment of the nifH gene sequence and a full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain Be17T was a member of the genus Paenibacillus. High levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were found between strain Be17T and Paenibacillus graminis RSA19T (97.9 %), Paenibacillus sonchi LMG 24727T (97.8 %), Paenibacillus riograndensis CECT 7330T (96.2 %) and Paenibacillus borealis DSM 13188T (96.1 %), respectively. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Be17T and the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Paenibacillus were below 96.0 %. However, the DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain Be17T and P. graminis RSA19T, P. sonchi LMG 24727T and P. riograndensis CECT 7330T were 47.9 %, 38.7 % and 37.5 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain Be17T was 52.9 mol%. The major fatty acid component of strain Be17T was anteiso-branched C15 : 0 (30.92 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA G+C content, DNA–DNA relatedness, chemotaxonomic properties and nifH gene sequence, strain Be17T represents a nitrogen-fixing strain of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus jilunlii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Be17T ( = CGMCC 1.10239T = DSM 23019T).
Five strains (Ryu1-2T, Gon2-9, Ryu4-3, Nog8-1 and Aza1-1) of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from flowers in mountainous areas in Japan, Oze National Park, Iizuna mountain and the Nikko area. The five isolates were found to share almost identical (99.6–100 % similar) 16S rRNA gene sequences and were therefore deemed to belong to the same species. These isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known lactic acid bacteria; the closest recognized relatives to strain Ryu1-2T were the type strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii (92.8 % similarity), Lactobacillus kefiri (92.7 %), Lactobacillus composti (92.6 %) and Lactobacillus buchneri (92.4 %). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ryu1-2T ( = NRIC 0774T = JCM 16512T = DSM 23037T).