A rod-shaped, endospore-forming, Gram-reaction-variable bacterial strain, designated WPCB173T, was isolated from freshwater collected from the Woopo wetland, Republic of Korea. Based on its phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as being a member of the genus Paenibacillus. Major polar lipids present in strain WPCB173T included phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified phospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 (65.2 %). The DNA G+C content was 48.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain WPCB173T clustered with species of the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours being Paenibacillus chinjuensis WN9T (96.7 %) and Paenibacillus soli DCY03T (96.4 %). DNA–DNA hybridization of strain WPCB173T with P. soli DCY03T and P. chinjuensis WN9T showed relatedness values of only 10 and 19 %, respectively. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strain WPCB173T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus rigui sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is WPCB173T (=KCTC 13282T =JCM 16352T).
Two novel thermophilic micro-organisms, designated YMO81T and YMO722T, were isolated from a high-temperature compost (internal temperature >95 °C). The isolates were able to grow at 80 °C in a nutrient broth and in a synthetic medium. Cells were aerobic, Gram-negative rods (0.3×4.0 μm). Spore formation was not observed. Strain YMO81T grew at 83 °C and pH 6.9–8.9 and grew optimally at 78 °C and pH 7.5 with 2 % NaCl. For growth in a synthetic minimal medium at 70 °C, the vitamins biotin, folic acid and thiamine and the amino acids glutamine and methionine were essential for growth of both strains; at 80 °C, strain YMO81T also required histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine, tryptophan and valine. Cellular fatty acids of the isolates comprised mainly iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of strains YMO81T and YMO722T were 70 and 64 mol%, respectively. When the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates were compared with those of other bacteria, highest similarity was observed with Planifilum yunnanense LA5T (90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). DNA–DNA relatedness between strain YMO722T and strain YMO81T was 55 %. N 4-Aminopropylspermine was identified as a major polyamine, which suggested that the isolates were distinct from other related taxa. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, we propose a new genus, Calditerricola gen. nov., and two novel species, the type species Calditerricola satsumensis sp. nov., with type strain YMO81T (=ATCC BAA-1462T =JCM 14719T =DSM 45223T), and Calditerricola yamamurae sp. nov., with type strain YMO722T (=ATCC BAA-1461T =JCM 14720T =DSM 45224T).
A strictly thermophilic anaerobe, designated strain VF08T, was isolated from a water sample collected from a Great Artesian Basin bore (registered bore number 22981) situated at Mitchell, QLD, Australia. Cells of isolate VF08T were slightly curved, non-sporulating rods (1.5–3.5×0.4–0.8 μm), which stained Gram-negative but possessed a Gram-positive cell-wall ultrastructure. The strain grew optimally in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose (TYEG) medium at 55 °C (temperature growth range between 37 and 60 °C) and a pH of 7 (pH growth range, 6.0–9.0). Yeast extract or tryptone was required for growth on glucose, fructose, xylose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose, cellobiose, ribose, pyruvate, tryptone, peptone, Casamino acids, amyl media and serine, but could also support growth as the sole carbon source. End products from glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, CO2 and H2. The strain reduced vanadium(V), but not iron(III), manganese(IV), elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, nitrate or nitrite in the presence of 0.2 % yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, glucose, sucrose and Casamino acids, but an increase in the growth rate or cell yield was not observed. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, penicillin, ampicillin and ≥2 % NaCl (w/v). The G+C content of the DNA was 38.4±0.8 mol% as determined by the thermal denaturation (T m) method. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that isolate VF08T was a member of the genus Caloramator with Caloramator australicus and Caloramator fervidus (formerly Clostridium fervidus) being the closest relatives with similarity values of 85.0 and 86.1 %, respectively, when helix 6 nucleotides were included in the analysis, and 95.2 % and 94 %, respectively, when these nucleotides were masked from the analysis. Further analysis revealed that strain VF08T formed an individual cluster (cluster II) within the genus Caloramator and could be distinguished from other species within the genus Caloramator (clusters I, III and IV) on the basis of signature nucleotides and differences in phenotypic traits. These data suggest that strain VF08T is a novel species of the genus Caloramator, for which the name Caloramator mitchellensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VF08T (=JCM 15828T=KCTC 5735T). An emended description of the genus Caloramator is also provided.
Strain S5T, a novel bacterium that was isolated for its capability to respire selenate to elemental selenium, is described. In addition to selenate respiration, it was also capable of dissimilatory selenite, arsenate and nitrate reduction with short-chain organic acids such as pyruvate, lactate and acetate as the carbon sources and electron donors. The isolate was unable to grow fermentatively. Strain S5T was isolated from sediment of an estuarine canal in Chennai, India. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel isolate revealed that it belonged to the family Chrysiogenaceae with sequence similarities of 92 and 98 %, respectively, with the type strains of Chrysiogenes arsenatis and Desulfurispirillum alkaliphilum, its closest known relatives. Strain S5T and D. alkaliphilum were closely related in terms of their 16S rRNA gene phylogeny; however, they varied greatly in their genomic DNA G+C content (56 mol% versus 45 mol%) and cellular fatty acid compositions, as well as in many metabolic capabilities. Strain S5T represents a novel species for which the name Desulfurispirillum indicum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S5T (=DSM 22839T =ATCC BAA-1389T).
The taxonomic position of a Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, CAU 9324T, isolated from a grassy sandbank was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain CAU 9324T grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 6.0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol as the major component. The predominant cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain CAU 9324T was 48.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, showing <96.4 % similarity to the type strains of all recognized Paenibacillus species. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain CAU 9324T was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus puldeungensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 9324T (=KCTC 13718T =CCUG 59189T).