A novel strictly aerobic, orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain GJ16T, was isolated from coastal seawater of Gangjin Bay, the southernmost part of the Korean peninsula, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. It grew optimally at 25–30 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in the presence of 3 % NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GJ16T formed a distinct lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae and shared less than 91.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with members of the genera Leptobacterium, Zhouia, Winogradskyella, Dokdonia and Krokinobacter. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (40.2 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (12.8 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (11.2 %) and C15 : 0 (6.6 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 39.4 mol% and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain GJ16T represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Gangjinia marincola gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GJ16T (=KCTC 22649T =JCM 16082T).
A Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, oxidase- and catalase-positive, marine bacterium, designated A2T, was isolated from a marine sponge, Hymeniacidon flavia, collected from the coast of Jeju Island, South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain A2T was a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Formosa agariphila KMM 3901T and Formosa algae KMM 3553T (96.99 and 96.98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). DNA–DNA relatedness between strain A2T and F. agariphila KMM 3901T and F. algae KMM 3553T was 14.1 and 26.8 %, respectively. The dominant fatty acids (>5 %) of strain A2T were iso-C15 : 0 (33.9 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (20.8 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (10.5 %) and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (6.1 %). The DNA G+C content of strain A2T was 36.0 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis, strain A2T represents a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa spongicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A2T (=KCTC 22662T =DSM 22637T).
Two strains of Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile, aerobic bacteria, designated LW30T and LW29, were isolated from the rhizosphere of a wetland reed in Dongtan, Chongming Island, China. The strains formed pale-yellow colonies on R2A plates. Growth occurred at 4–37 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6–9 (optimum pH 7–8) and in the presence of 0–3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0–1 %). Oxidase and catalase activities and flexirubin-type pigments were absent. MK-6 was the major respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 1 ω9c. Strains LW30T and LW29 could be differentiated from related species by several phenotypic characteristics. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strains LW30T and LW29 in the genus Flavobacterium with high sequence similarity to Flavobacterium cheniae NJ-26T (94.0 %) and Flavobacterium indicium GPTSA 100-9T (93.9 %). Together with F. indicium GPTSA 100-9T, strains LW30T and LW29 formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic tree. The DNA G+C content was 30 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strains LW30T and LW29 represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium dongtanense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LW30T (=KCTC 22671T =CCTCC AB 209201T).
A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding and oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium, designated A6T, was isolated from a marine sponge, Halichondria oshoro, collected on the coast of Jeju Island, South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain A6T was a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The closest relatives were Aquimarina intermedia LMG 23204T, A. latercula ATCC 23177T, A. brevivitae SMK-19T and A. muelleri KMM 6020T, with which strain A6T shared 95.7, 95.1, 94.7 and 94.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain A6T were iso-C15 : 0 (32.2 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (20.0 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (12.3 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (7.2 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c; 6.8 %). The DNA G+C content of strain A6T was 36.0 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. On the basis of combined phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain A6T represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina spongiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A6T (=KCTC 22663T =DSM 22623T).
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (WK042T) was isolated from rice-straw residue in a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms in Japan. Cells were Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Growth was stimulated well by haemin, and was enhanced by cobalamin (vitamin B12). Strain WK042T utilized arabinose, xylose, glucose, mannose and aesculin as preferred substrates. Maltose, dextrin, glycogen, starch and pectin were also utilized, although growth on these substrates was much slower. The strain produced acetate, propionate and succinate from these saccharides. The strain was slightly alkaliphilic, with optimum growth at pH 7.7. The temperature range for growth was 10–40 °C, the optimum being 35 °C. The strain was sensitive to bile. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C15 : 0. Menaquinone 11 (MK-11) was the major respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strain in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain WK042T was related distantly to the type strains of species in the cluster including Bacteroides massiliensis, Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei (91–92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on data from the present phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, strain WK042T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacteroides, for which the name Bacteroides paurosaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WK042T (=JCM 15092T =DSM 21004T).