Two Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming cocci (strains MK-7T and MPA-33T) were isolated from poultry houses. Strain MK-7T was isolated on marine broth agar from coquina, a food supplement for female ducks used in a duck-fattening farm. Strain MPA-33T was isolated from the air of a turkey house on TSA after filter sampling. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, both strains were shown to belong to the genus Jeotgalicoccus; MK-7T was most closely related to Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus YKJ-115T (99.3 % similarity) and MPA-33T was most closely related to Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans YKJ-101T (98.8 %). The quinone system of MK-7T was composed of equal amounts of menaquinones MK-7 and MK-6 and that of MPA-33T contained 76 % MK-7 and 24 % MK-6. The polar lipid profile of strain MK-7T consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol and six unidentified lipids present in minor to moderate amounts. In strain MPA-33T, diphosphatidylglycerol was the single predominant lipid, whereas phosphatidylglycerol was detected in moderate amounts. In addition, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified lipids were detected. Fatty acid profiles with iso-15 : 0 and anteiso-15 : 0 as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of the strains to the genus Jeotgalicoccus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests as well as DNA–DNA hybridizations allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of strains MK-7T and MPA-33T from the most closely related species. Strains MK-7T and MPA-33T therefore represent novel species, for which the names Jeotgalicoccus coquinae sp. nov. (type strain MK-7T =DSM 22419T =CCM 7682T =CCUG 57956T) and Jeotgalicoccus aerolatus sp. nov. (type strain MPA-33T =DSM 22420T =CCM 7679T =CCUG 57953T) are proposed.
A Gram-positive bacterium (strain CC-YMP-6T) was isolated from soil samples collected from Yang-Ming Mountain, Taiwan. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-YMP-6T clearly belonged to the genus Virgibacillus and was most closely related to the type strains of Virgibacillus halophilus (96.2 % similarity) and Virgibacillus kekensis (96.3 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid plus moderate amounts of two unidentified aminophospholipids and a phospholipid. The polyamine pattern comprised spermidine as the single major component with spermine and putrescine present in minor amounts. The major fatty acids of strain CC-YMP-6T were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-YMP-6T from all recognized species of the genus Virgibacillus. Strain CC-YMP-6T is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-YMP-6T (=DSM 22952T=CCM 7714T).
A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, strain CAU 9038T, was isolated from a tidal-flat sediment of DaeYiJac Island, Republic of Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the dominant cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 51.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, with <96.1 % sequence similarity to type strains of Paenibacillus species with validly published names. The most closely related type strains to CAU 9038T were Paenibacillus thailandensis S3-4AT (96.1 % similarity) and Paenibacillus agaridevorans DSM 1355T (95.3 %). The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data clearly indicated that strain CAU 9038T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus chungangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 9038T (=KCTC 13717T =CCUG 59129T).
A facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain P11-6T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field located in Geumsan County, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain P11-6T were Gram-stain-negative, catalase-negative, motile rods and produced semi-translucent, circular, white colonies on tryptic soy agar. The isolate contained MK-7 as the only menaquinone and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acid. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown phospholipids, three unknown glycolipids and three unknown lipids were detected in the polar lipid profile. The DNA G+C content of strain P11-6T was 41.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain P11-6T was most closely related to Fontibacillus aquaticus GPTSA 19T (97.2 % sequence similarity) and that it formed a separate lineage with F. aquaticus in the family Paenibacillaceae. Combined phenotypic and DNA–DNA hybridization data supported the conclusion that strain P11-6T represents a novel species in the genus Fontibacillus, for which the name Fontibacillus panacisegetis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is P11-6T (=KCTC 13564T =CECT 7605T).