Two non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterial strains designated HMD1001T and HMD1033T were isolated from the water of a mesotrophic artificial lake in Korea. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains could be assigned to the genus Flavobacterium ; strain HMD1001T appeared most closely related to Flavobacterium fluvii H7T (96.8 % sequence similarity), F. succinicans DSM 4002T (96.6 %) and F. hydatis DSM 2063T (96.6 %) whereas strain HMD1033T appeared most closely related to Flavobacterium psychrolimnae LMG 2201T (96.2 %), F. segetis AT1048T (96.2 %) and F. weaverense AT1042T (96.2 %). The major fatty acids of strain HMD1001T were iso-C15 : 0 (21.5 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c; 18.0 %) and iso-C15 : 1 G (7.6 %), whereas those of HMD1033T were summed feature 3 (23.8 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (16.9 %), iso-C15 : 0 (15.3 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (12.1 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains HMD1001T and HMD1033T were 35.9 and 32.2 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence indicates that strains HMD1001T and HMD1033T represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium , for which the names Flavobacterium yonginense sp. nov. (type strain HMD1001T = KCTC 22796T = CECT 7594T) and Flavobacterium myungsuense sp. nov. (type strain HMD1033T = KCTC 22825T = CECT 7649T) are proposed.
A Gram-reaction-negative bacterial strain, designated GIMN1.005T, was isolated from a forest soil sample in Vietnam. The isolate was yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic, and unable to grow below 5 °C or above 37 °C and in the presence of more than 2.0 % NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-gliding and non-spore-forming. The yellow pigment was of the flexirubin type, non-diffusible and non-fluorescent. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GIMN1.005T occupied a distinct lineage within the genus Chryseobacterium , with sequence similarity values of 98.6, 98.5 and 98.3 % to Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense KCTC 12894T, Chryseobacterium jejuense KACC 12501T and Chryseobacterium indologenes GIFU 1347T, respectively. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain GIMN1.005T and C. jejuense KACC 12501T was <30 %. The DNA G+C content of strain GIMN1.005T was 42.1 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c); menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the sole respiratory quinone. On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain GIMN1.005T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium , for which the name Chryseobacterium vietnamense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GIMN1.005T ( = CCTCC M 209230T = NRRL B-59550T).
A novel yellow-pigmented, agarolytic bacterial strain, designated ZC1T, was isolated from the surface of the marine red alga Porphyra haitanensis collected near Nan Ao Island, Guangdong province, China. The isolate was Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped and displayed β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase and oxidase activities. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The DNA G+C content was 32.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain ZC1T was closely related to members of the genus Aquimarina in the family Flavobacteriaceae , phylum Bacteroidetes . Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain ZC1T ( = CCTCC AB 2010229T = NBRC 107695T) represents the type strain of a novel species in the genus Aquimarina , for which the name Aquimarina agarilytica sp. nov. is proposed.
An irregular rod-shaped, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented bacterium was isolated from seawater from the western North Pacific Ocean near Japan. The strain, designated S1-66T, was Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, heterotrophic and oxidase-positive. Growth occurred in the presence of 1–4 % NaCl, with optimum growth at 2 % NaCl. The strain grew at 15–30 °C, with optimum growth at 20–25 °C. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 48.1 mol% (HPLC). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (26.4 %), iso-C15 : 1 (20.3 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (14.2 %). Phylogenetic trees generated by using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S1-66T belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed 94.2 % sequence similarity to the most closely related type strain, Ulvibacter antarcticus IMCC3101T. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic features, S1-66T is classified in a novel genus and species within the family Flavobacteriaceae , for which the name Aureitalea marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aureitalea marina is S1-66T ( = NBRC 107741T = KCTC 23434T).
Strain WPAGA1T was isolated from marine sediment of the west Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Flammeovirga . Strain WPAGA1T exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Flammeovirga yaeyamensis NBRC 100898T (98.1 %) and lower sequence similarity with Flammeovirga arenaria IFO 15982T (94.6 %) and other members of the genus Flammeovirga (<94.2 %). DNA–DNA relatedness studies showed that strain WPAGA1T was distinct from F. yaeyamensis NBRC 100898T and F. arenaria NBRC 15982T (43±4 % and 32±2 % relatedness values, respectively). Strain WPAGA1T could be distinguished from all known members of the genus Flammeovirga by a number of phenotypic features. However, the dominant fatty acids of strain WPAGA1T (iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and C20 : 4ω6,9,12,15c), the major polyamine (cadaverine) and the G+C content of the chromosomal DNA (32.9 mol%) were consistent with those of members of the genus Flammeovirga . Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features and 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain WPAGA1T can be assigned to the genus Flammeovirga as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Flammeovirga pacifica sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is WPAGA1T ( = CCTCC AB 2010364T = LMG 26175T = DSM 24597T = MCCC 1A06425T).