A novel non-sporulating, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, Gram-positive-staining coccus, strain JSM 077023T, was isolated from an intertidal sediment sample collected from Naozhou Island in the South China Sea, China. Growth occurred in the presence of 0.5–25 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum, 2–5 % (w/v) NaCl] and at pH 5.5–10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0–8.0) and at 4–45 °C (optimum, 30–35 °C). The major amino acid constituents of the cell wall were alanine, glycine and lysine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The strain contained MK-7 and MK-6 as the predominant respiratory quinones and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid as the polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JSM 077023T was 41.3 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 077023T should be assigned to the genus Jeotgalicoccus and was most closely related to the type strains of Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans (sequence similarity 99.0 %) and Jeotgalicoccus aerolatus (99.0 %), followed by Jeotgalicoccus coquinae (98.6 %) and Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus (97.4 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of less than 97 % were observed with other species of the genus Jeotgalicoccus. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain JSM 077023T and the type strains of J. halotolerans, J. aerolatus, J. coquinae and J. psychrophilus ranged from 36.8 to 22.7 %. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA–DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the suggestion that strain JSM 077023T represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalicoccus, for which the name Jeotgalicoccus nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 077023T ( = DSM 23006T = KCTC 13714T). An emended description of the genus Jeotgalicoccus is also presented.
A novel bacterium of the genus Pasteuria was discovered parasitizing bacterivorous nematodes of the genus Bursilla, in selected bermudagrass (Cynodon) field plots in Davie, FL, USA. Soil containing this bacterium was sampled and supplied with bi-weekly inoculations of cultured species of the genus Bursilla in order to build and maintain a source of endospores for continuous in vivo conservation of the bacteria for further study and characterization. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities supported its congeneric ranking with other members of the genus Pasteuria that have been identified from nematodes and cladocerans. There were, however, no clear sister candidates for this organism, which supported the evidence of endospore ultrastructure and host-range studies, suggesting it belonged to a novel taxon. Because members of the genus Pasteuria cannot yet be isolated, definitive type strains could not be maintained; therefore, the name ‘Candidatus Pasteuria aldrichii’ is proposed for this organism.
A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, motile, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 081004T, was isolated from non-saline forest soil in Xiaoxi National Natural Reserve, China. Growth occurred with 0.5–20 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2–4 %), at pH 6.0–10.5 (optimum pH 8.0) and at 5–40 °C (optimum 25–30 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Strain JSM 081004T contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JSM 081004T was 40.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 081004T should be assigned to the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus lehensis (sequence similarity 97.8 %), Bacillus oshimensis (97.8 %) and Bacillus patagoniensis (97.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis, DNA–DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data all support the proposal of strain JSM 081004T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus xiaoxiensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is JSM 081004T ( = CCTCC AA 208057T = DSM 21943T).
The type strains of the species Paenibacillus ginsengisoli (KCTC 13931T) and Paenibacillus anaericanus (DSM 15890T) were compared in order to clarify the taxonomic relationship of the two species. On the basis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence comparisons, the two strains shared 99.9 and 99.6 % similarity, respectively. The mean DNA–DNA relatedness value was 77 % and the genomic DNA G+C contents were 43.2 and 42.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic data, including fatty acid patterns and acid-production, enzyme-activity and substrate-utilization profiles, showed no pronounced differences between the type strains of the two species. These genotypic and phenotypic data suggest that the two taxa constitute a single species. According to Rules 38 and 42 of the Bacteriological Code, they should be united under the name Paenibacillus anaericanus, with the name Paenibacillus ginsengisoli as a later heterotypic synonym.
A Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated XJ259T, was isolated from a cold spring sample from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. The isolate grew optimally at 20–30 °C and pH 7.3–7.8. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that isolate XJ259T belonged phylogenetically to the genus Paenibacillus, and was most closely related to Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538T (with 96.6 % sequence similarity), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1T (96.3 %) and Paenibacillus castaneae Ch-32T (96.1 %), sharing less than 96.0 % sequence similarity with all other members of the genus Paenibacillus. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealing menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown phosphoglycolipids as the major cellular polar lipids, a DNA G+C content of 47.0 mol%, and anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids supported affiliation of the new isolate to the genus Paenibacillus. Based on these data, isolate XJ259T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus algorifonticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XJ259T ( = CGMCC 1.10223T = JCM 16598T).
A Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic, filamentous bacterium, strain JFMB-ATET, was isolated in 2008 during environmental screening of a plastic surface in grade C in a contract manufacturing organization in southern Germany. The isolate grew at temperatures of 25–50 °C and at pH 5.0–8.5, forming ivory-coloured colonies with sparse white aerial mycelia. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae, except that the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, while all previously described members of this family display this diagnostic diamino acid in meso-conformation. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 54.6 mol%, the main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and the major menaquinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids had saturated C14–C16 branched chains. No diagnostic sugars were detected. Based on the chemotaxonomic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel genus and species, Kroppenstedtia eburnea gen. nov. sp. nov. The type strain is JFMB-ATET ( = DSM 45196T = NRRL B-24804T = CCUG 59226T).