A Gram-stain-positive endophytic bacterium, designated strain YC6957T, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of a halophyte (Elymus mollis Trin.) inhabiting coastal tidal flats of Namhae Island, located on the southern coast of Korea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cells were facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods to coccoid rods, motile by a single flagellum. Strain YC6957T was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and able to grow in the presence of 0–8 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at 4–5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred at 15–45 °C (optimal growth at 30–35 °C) and pH 6.0–8.5 (optimal growth at pH 7.0–8.0). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (11.3 %), iso-C15 : 0 (19.2 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (36.4 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus. Strain YC6957T exhibited high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest neighbours, Bacillus ruris LMG 22866T (96.14 %), Bacillus lentus NCIMB 8773T (95.97 %) and Bacillus galactosidilyticus LMG 17892T (95.91 %), and less than 95.84 % similarity to all other type strains in the genus Bacillus. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data, it is suggested that strain YC6957T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus graminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6957T ( = KACC 13779T = DSM 22162T).
Seven isolates of an unidentified Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism isolated from domestic and wild pigs were characterized by phenotypic and molecular-genetic methods. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the unknown bacterium was phylogenetically closely related to, but distinct from, Streptococcus suis (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain). rpoB and sodA sequence analysis showed minimum interspecies divergence from phylogenetically close 16S rRNA gene sequence-based relatives of 13.8 and 18.6 %, respectively. DNA–DNA hybridization of a strain of the unidentified organism demonstrated 8–18 % reassociation with S. suis NCTC 10234T. The novel bacterium could be distinguished from S. suis and other Streptococcus species using biochemical tests. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown isolates from domestic and wild animals be assigned to a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus porcorum sp. nov. The type strain is 682-03T ( = CCUG 58479T = CECT 7593T).
Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, tetrad-forming cocci, C01T and C02, were isolated in Thailand from fish sauce. They were facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacteria. These strains produced l-lactic acid from glucose. They grew at pH 5.0–9.0, at 15–40 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl. The dominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C contents of strains C01T and C02 were 38.6 and 38.7 mol%, respectively. Strain C01T was related most closely to Desemzia incerta DSM 20581T, with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.9 %. The strains could be distinguished clearly from D. incerta DSM 20581T based on cell morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness. On the basis of the data presented, strains C01T and C02 are considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the Bacillus–Lactobacillus cluster, for which the name Pisciglobus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pisciglobus halotolerans is C01T ( = KCTC 13150T = TISTR 1958T = PCU 316T).
A Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, designated Gsoil 1105T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon Province in South Korea and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate belongs to the order Bacillales, showing the highest level of sequence similarity with respect to Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris Eur1 9.5T (94.6 %). The phylogenetic distances from other described species with validly published names within the order Bacillales were greater than 9.0 %. Strain Gsoil 1105T had a genomic DNA G+C content of 55.6 mol% and menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 1105T represents a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus, for which the name Tumebacillus ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 1105T ( = KCTC 13942T = DSM 18389T).
Two slightly halophilic bacterial strains, C1-52T and YD-9, were isolated from Daban and Aiding salt lakes in Xinjiang, China, respectively. The isolates were Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic cocci. Colonies were pale yellow, and a light pink, diffusible pigment was produced after a few additional days of incubation. The isolates grew optimally with 2–3 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7.5 and at 30–35 °C. The peptidoglycan type was l-Lys–Gly3–4–l-Ala(Gly). The menaquinones were MK-7 (83.2 %) and MK-6 (16.8 %). The major fatty acids (>10 %) were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strains C1-52T and YD-9 was 41.2 and 41.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains C1-52T and YD-9 were closely related to Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus YKJ-115T (98.0 and 97.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively), followed by Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans YKJ-101T (97.1 and 96.8 %). Strains C1-52T and YD-9 shared, respectively, 20 and 11 % DNA–DNA relatedness with J. halotolerans JCM 11198T and 8 and 13 % with J. psychrophilus JCM 11199T. DNA–DNA relatedness between the isolates was 91 %. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strains C1-52T and YD-9 belonged to the same species, which should be placed in the genus Jeotgalicoccus as a novel species. The name Jeotgalicoccus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain C1-52T ( = CGMCC 1.8911T = NBRC 105788T).