Two strains of anaerobic, Gram-negative bacilli isolated from the human oral cavity were subjected to a comprehensive range of phenotypic and genotypic tests and were found to belong to two separate taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were both related to, but distinct from, the type strain of Prevotella melaninogenica. Two novel species, Prevotella fusca sp. nov. and Prevotella scopos sp. nov., are proposed to accommodate these strains. Both strains were saccharolytic and produced acetic and succinic acids, with lesser amounts of lactic and isovaleric acids, as end products of fermentation, and both were sensitive to 20 % bile. The principal cellular long-chain fatty acids of both strains were ai-C15 : 0, 3-OH i-C17 : 0, 3-OH C16 : 0, i-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of the type strains of Prevotella fusca (W1435T = DSM 22504T = CCUG 57946T) and Prevotella scopos (W2052T = DSM 22613T = CCUG 57945T) were 43 and 41 mol%, respectively. The two species could be differentiated by gelatin hydrolysis, cellobiose and ribose fermentation, and production of β-glucosidase.
A non-motile, rod-shaped, red-pigmented bacterium, designated strain BZ33rT, was isolated from soil of an industrial site. Cells stained Gram-negative and were aerobic and psychrophilic, showing good growth at 1–20 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BZ33rT was related to members of the genus Hymenobacter and had highest sequence similarity with Hymenobacter aerophilus DSM 13606T (97.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (20.3 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH; 20.2 %), iso-C15 : 0 (20.0 %), summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B; 8.2 %) and C16 : 1ω5c (7.9 %). Strain BZ33rT had MK-7 as the major menaquinone. The polyamine pattern contained sym-homospermidine as the major compound with moderate amounts of spermidine. Phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown aminophospholipids, two unknown aminolipids, two unknown glycolipids and five unknown polar lipids were present in the polar lipid profile. The G+C content of the DNA was 61.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness data, strain BZ33rT is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter psychrophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BZ33rT ( = DSM 22290T = CGMCC 1.8975T = LMG 25548T).
A Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, flexirubin-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain IMCC1412T, was isolated from a marine polychaete Periserrula leucophryna inhabiting a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea, Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain IMCC1412T was most closely related to Kordia algicida, with a sequence similarity of 96.7 %, but only distantly related to other species in the family Flavobacteriaceae (<92 % similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 37.3 mol%. The strain contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified aminolipids and unidentified polar lipids as the major polar lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic characteristics, strain IMCC1412T ( = KACC 14311T = KCTC 22801T = NBRC 106077T) should be assigned to the genus Kordia as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Kordia periserrulae sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Kordia is also presented.
Gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces and three strains, ST170T, ST180 and ST28T, were investigated taxonomically. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and specific phenotypic characteristics, the three strains belonged to the genus Bacteroides. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains ST170T and ST180 formed a single cluster and a distinct line of descent. Strain ST170T exhibited 99.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain ST180 and 95.1, 94.6 and 94.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacteroides massiliensis JCM 13223T, Bacteroides dorei JCM 13471T and Bacteroides vulgatus JCM 5826T, respectively. Strain ST28T also formed a distinct line of descent and exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacteroides uniformis JCM 5828T (98.1 %). Low DNA–DNA relatedness (1 %) between strain ST28T and B. uniformis JCM 5828T clearly indicated that they belonged to different species. Analysis of hsp60 sequences also supported these relationships. The DNA G+C contents of strains ST170T and ST28T were 45.2 and 41.0 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, two novel species, Bacteroides chinchillae sp. nov. (type strain ST170T = JCM 16497T = CCUG 59335T) and Bacteroides rodentium sp. nov. (type strain ST28T = JCM 16496T = CCUG 59334T), are proposed.
A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium (strain JS-08T) isolated from seawater was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JS-08T belongs to the genus Myroides, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Myroides odoratimimus JCM 7460T, with which it shared 97.0 % 16S RNA gene sequence similarity. Strain JS-08T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the predominant menaquinone, and the dominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and a summed feature consisting of iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c. The DNA G+C content of strain JS-08T was 34.2 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is suggested that strain JS-08T represents a novel speciesof the genus Myroides, for which the name Myroides marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS-08T ( = KCTC 23023T = JCM 16529T).