Three novel species of the genus Rhodotorula are described. Rhodotorula benthica sp. nov. (type strain JCM 10901T =SY-91T) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae sp. nov. (type strain JCM 10899T =SY-86T) were respectively isolated from the tubeworm Lamellibrachia sp. and the giant white clam Calyptogena sp., collected from the deep-sea floor of the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Rhodotorula lysiniphila sp. nov. (type strain JCM 5951T) is proposed for strains isolated previously in Japan and Pakistan. The three species were placed phylogenetically into a species complex comprising Rhodotorula laryngis, Rhodotorula minuta, Rhodotorula pallida and Rhodotorula slooffiae. R. minuta and R. slooffiae are closely related in both the D1/D2 region of the 26S rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer and 5·8S rDNA regions. R. benthica and R. laryngis were closer to R. pallida based on the D1/D2 region. Other relationships were not clear.
Three mycocinogenic strains representing the genus Cryptococcus were isolated on glucuronate agar from plants and turf collected in the Prioksko-terrasny biosphere reserve (Russia). These isolates fit the standard description of Cryptococcus laurentii, but differ from its type strain in both their mycocin-sensitivity profiles and the killing patterns of their mycocins. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed that these isolates represent two novel species, for which the names Cryptococcus nemorosus sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2906T) and Cryptococcus perniciosus sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2905T) are proposed. Morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as mycocinotyping and molecular analysis, show a close affinity between these two novel anamorphic species and the teleomorphic species Papiliotrema bandonii (Tremellales).