A rod shaped, Gram-stain-negative, chemo-organotrophic, heterotrophic, strictly aerobic, non-gliding bacterium, designated strain PLRT, was isolated from faeces of the mollusc Aplysia punctata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) that had been fed with green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. The novel strain was able to degrade ulvan, a polysaccharide extracted from green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae). The taxonomic position of strain PLRT was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain PLRT was dark orange, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 2.5 % (w/v) NaCl with an oxidative metabolism using oxygen as the electron acceptor. Nitrate could not be used as the electron acceptor. Strain PLRT had a Chargaff’s coefficient (DNA G+C content) of 35.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene placed the novel strain in the family Flavobacteriaceae (phylum ‘Bacteroidetes’), within a clade comprising Stenothermobacter spongiae, Nonlabens tegetincola, Sandarakinotalea sediminis, Persicivirga xylanidelens and Persicivirga dokdonensis. The closest neighbours of strain PLRT were P. xylanidelens and P. dokdonensis, sharing 95.2 and 95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. Phylogenetic inference and differential phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain PLRT represents a novel species of the genus Persicivirga, for which the name Persicivirga ulvanivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PLRT ( = CIP 110082T = DSM 22727T).
A taxonomic study was carried out on two bacterial strains, PCP11T and PCP104, isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea, Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that these strains belonged to the family Cytophagaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. Strains PCP11T and PCP104 shared 99.4 % sequence similarity and were related most closely to Reichenbachiella agariperforans KMM 3525T (95.8 and 96.0 % sequence similarity, respectively). Members of the genera Fulvivirga, Roseivirga, Fabibacter and Marinoscillum were the next closest relatives of the new isolates, with sequence similarities ≤91 %. The two isolates were Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, gliding bacteria. They grew in the presence of 1–5 % NaCl, at pH 5.5–8.5 and at 4–35 °C. Strains PCP11T and PCP104 shared a number of physiological and biochemical properties with Reichenbachiella agariperforans KMM 3525T, but they differed from this strain in the hydrolysis of biopolymers and in the production of carotenoid and flexirubin-type pigments. Both strains possessed iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 4 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C15 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains PCP11T and PCP104 were 39.6 and 41.9 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, it is proposed that the two isolates represent a novel species, Reichenbachiella faecimaris sp. nov., with strain PCP11T ( = KACC 14523T = JCM 16588T) as the type strain. Emended descriptions of the genus Reichenbachiella and Reichenbachiella agariperforans are also proposed.