A Cr(VI)-resistant, Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobe, designated GCAF-1T, was isolated from chromium-contaminated soil by its ability to reduce Cr(VI) in low concentrations. Mixed acid fermentation during growth on glucose resulted in accumulation of acetate, butyrate, formate and lactate. Morphological studies indicated the presence of peritrichous flagella, pili and an S-layer. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were C16 : 0, C14 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω9c, summed feature 4 (comprising iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain GCAF-1T was 30.7 mol%. Phylogenetic interference indicated that strain GCAF-1T clustered with group I of the genus Clostridium. Of strains within this cluster, strain GCAF-1T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (98.1–98.9 %) with Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 791T, C. saccharobutylicum NCP 262T, C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4T, C. puniceum DSM 2619T and C. roseum DSM 51T. However, strain GCAF-1T could be clearly distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours by low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness (<50 %) and some phenotypic features. Based on the evidence presented here, strain GCAF-1T ( = DSM 23318T = KCTC 5935T) represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium chromiireducens sp. nov. is proposed.
A Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SY01T, was isolated from tidal flat sediment from Sacheon Bay, South Korea. Strain SY01T was characterized with respect to its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive. Optimal growth of the strain occurred at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The DNA G+C content was 56.1 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and several unknown lipids were detected in the polar lipid profile. Anteiso-C15 : 0 (47.2 %), iso-C15 : 0 (18.9 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (10.5 %) were the major cellular fatty acids of strain SY01T. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were found with Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae PALXIL04T (95.9 %), Paenibacillus tarimensis SA-7-6T (94.6 %) and Paenibacillus mendelii C/2T (94.4 %). Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics presented in this study, strain SY01T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus sacheonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SY01T ( = DSM 23054T = KACC 14895T).
During an investigation into the microbiota of beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens), nine isolates were obtained from different organs of four animals. The isolates were Gram-positive-staining, catalase-negative, short rod-shaped or coccoid organisms. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates allocated them to the genus Weissella, showing 96.3 % and 96.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Weissella viridescens NRIC 1536Tand Weissella minor NRIC 1625T, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the new isolates from whales represent a novel species of the genus Weissella, Weissella ceti sp. nov. The type strain of Weissella ceti is 1119-1A-09T ( = CECT 7719T = CCUG 59653T).
A rod-shaped, endospore-forming, Gram-reaction-positive bacterium, designated strain WPCB018T, was isolated from a fresh water sample collected from Woopo wetland, Korea. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (32.2 %), C16 : 0 (20.1 %) and C18 : 0 (18.1 %). The DNA G+C content was 56.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain WPCB018T belongs to a cluster comprising species of the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours being Paenibacillus humicus PC-147T (97.5 %) and Paenibcillus pasadenensis SAFN-007T (96.2 %). Genomic DNA–DNA hybridizations performed with strain WPCB018T and type strains of the species P. humicus, P. pinihumi, P. phyllosphaerae, P. pasadenensis and P. tarimensis showed relatedness values of only 10, 17, 18, 19 and 20 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, molecular and genetic evidence, strain WPCB018T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus wooponensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is WPCB018T ( = KCTC 13280T = JCM 16350T).