Two extremely halophilic archaeal strains, designated TNN44T and TNN58T, were isolated from Tainan marine solar saltern near Lianyungang city, Jiangsu province, China. Cells of the two strains were pleomorphic and Gram-stain-negative; colonies were red-pigmented. Strains TNN44T and TNN58T were able to grow at 20–50 °C (optimum 37 °C for both), in the presence of 1.4–5.1 M NaCl (optimum 3.4–3.9 M NaCl) and at pH 5.5–9.0 (optimum pH 6.5–7.0); neither strain required Mg2+ for growth. Cells lysed in distilled water. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains TNN44T and TNN58T were related closely to Halogranum rubrum RO2-11T (96.2 and 97.2 % similarity, respectively). The polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (trace), and one major glycolipid and one minor glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and mannosyl glucosyl diether, respectively; other trace unidentified lipids were also detected. The DNA G+C content of strains TNN44T and TNN58T was 64.0 and 62.0 mol%, respectively. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strains TNN44T and TNN58T was 37.2 %, and these two strains showed a low level of DNA–DNA relatedness with Halogranum rubrum RO2-11T (40.6 and 44.4 %, respectively). Two novel species of the genus Halogranum are proposed to accommodate these two strains, Halogranum gelatinilyticum sp. nov. (type strain TNN44T = CGMCC 1.10119T = JCM 16426T) and Halogranum amylolyticum sp. nov. (type strain TNN58T = CGMCC 1.10121T = JCM 16428T).
A novel halophilic archaeon, strain KeC-11T, was isolated from a seawater aquarium at the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan. The strain was aerobic, Gram-negative and chemo-organotrophic, growing optimally at 37 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in 2.7 M (16 %) NaCl. The strain required at least 10 mM magnesium ions for growth. Cells of strain KeC-11T were non-motile and generally irregular coccoids or discoids. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 67.7 mol%. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated that it was distantly related to the other recognized members of the family Halobacteriaceae, with the closest relative being Natronomonas pharaonis GabaraT (91 % sequence similarity). The strain contained C20C20 and C20C25 diether derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, a glycolipid chromatographically identical to the glycosyl-mannosyl-glucosyl diether (TGD-2) and at least one unidentified glycolipid. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic data support the placement of isolate KeC-11T in a novel species in a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, for which the name Halomarina oriensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KeC-11T ( = JCM 16495T = KCTC 4074T).
Halophilic archaeal strain TBN37T was isolated from Taibei marine solar saltern near Lianyungang city of Jiangsu province, China. Cells were pleomorphic, flat and contained gas vesicles. Cells of strain TBN37T stained Gram-negative and the colonies were pink-pigmented. The strain was able to grow at 25–50 °C (optimum, 37–40 °C), with 1.4–5.1 M NaCl (optimum, 2.1 M NaCl), with 0–1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum, 0.01 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 8 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of strain TBN37T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain TBN37T was closely related to Haloplanus natans and Haloplanus vescus, with the same similarity of 97.4 %. The DNA G+C content of strain TBN37T is 64.1 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain TBN37T and Haloplanus natans JCM 14081T and between strain TBN37T and Haloplanus vescus RO5-8T were 37.6 % and 42.1 %, respectively. It was concluded that strain TBN37T represents a novel species of the genus Haloplanus, for which the name Haloplanus aerogenes sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TBN37T ( = CGMCC 1.10124T = JCM 16430T).