A Gram-negative-staining, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated strain MN1-1006T, was isolated from an ascidian (sea squirt) sample, and was studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate shared approximately 93–99% sequence similarity with recognized species of the genus Rubritalea within the phylum ‘Verrucomicrobia’. DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain MN1-1006T and Rubritalea squalenifaciens HOact23T and Rubritalea sabuli YM29-052T were 57% and 14.5%, respectively. Strain MN1-1006T produced carotenoid compounds that rendered the cell biomass a reddish pink colour. The strain also contained squalene. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the novel strain contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain MN1-1006T was 51.4 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-9. On the basis of these data, it was concluded that strain MN1-1006T represents a novel species of the genus Rubritalea, for which the name Rubritalea halochordaticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MN1-1006T ( = KCTC 23186T = NBRC 107102T).
Three strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated NJ 317T, NJ 414 and NJ 415, were isolated from the outer leaves of Chinese cabbages (Brassica rapa L. var. glabra Regel) and characterized taxonomically. The strains were Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic cocci that did not produce gas from glucose and formed l-lactic acid. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0, C14 : 0 and summed feature 10. Morphological, physiological and phylogenetic data indicated that the strains belonged to the genus Lactococcus. These strains shared similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited DNA relatedness values >96.6 % to each other, indicating that they represent a single species. The DNA G+C contents of the three strains were 42.1–42.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel strains were determined and aligned with those of other species of the genus Lactococcus. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis the three strains grouped with other members of the genus Lactococcus. Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae were the most closely related species, sharing a sequence similarity value of 94.4 % with the three strains. Ribotyping patterns, however, revealed that these strains were well-separated from reference strains of species of the genus Lactococcus and DNA–DNA hybridization studies indicated that the novel strains had low levels (<20.2 %) of DNA relatedness with reference strains of L. lactis, L. garvieae and other type strains of previously described species, showing that they represent a different species. Based on this evidence, strains NJ 317T, NJ 414 and NJ 415 represent a novel species of the genus Lactococcus, for which the name Lactococcus fujiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NJ 317T ( = JCM16395T = CGMCC 1.10453T).
An anaerobic rod-shaped thermophile was isolated from a hydrothermal vent at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, western Pacific Ocean, and was named strain MN14T. The rods were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile without flagella, 2–4 µm long and 0.5 µm wide, and divided by binary fission in the mid-exponential phase. The cells were surrounded by a sheath-like structure (toga) and occurred singly or in chains. Spheroids containing multiple cells were observed not only in the stationary phase, as previously observed for species of the order Thermotogales, but also from the early exponential phase. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the peptidoglycan in rods partly disintegrated in the early growth phases and that the outer membrane of the spheroids was not completely lined with peptidoglycan. These findings suggested that the spheroids were formed from rods by the disintegration of peptidoglycan and subsequent inflation of the outer membrane. The spheroids eventually generated tiny cells in the periplasmic space, indicating a viviparous mode of proliferation in addition to binary fission. Strain MN14T grew at 40–75 °C, pH 5.0–8.2 and with 0.25–5.20 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth occurring at 68 °C, pH 6.8 and with 2.5 % NaCl. The shortest doubling time was 24 min, assuming that the strain propagated only by binary fission. Elemental sulfur enhanced growth, but was not essential. Thiosulfate was not an electron acceptor for growth. The strain was a chemo-organotroph that grew on yeast extract as the sole growth substrate. Tryptone and starch supported its growth in the presence of yeast extract. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 31.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Thermosipho. No significant DNA–DNA hybridization was observed between the genomic DNA of strain MN14T and phylogenetically related species of the genus Thermosipho. Based on this evidence, strain MN14T is proposed to represent a novel species, named Thermosipho globiformans sp. nov. The species epithet globiformans reflects the formation of multicellular and reproductive spheroids by the novel strain. The type strain of this species is MN14T ( = JCM 15059T = DSM 19918T).