Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178T = IBT 23262T), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171T = IBT 23253T), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149T = IBT 23247T), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135T = IBT 23229T) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216T = IBT 23203T) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium daleae and Penicillium brasilianum. An overview of the phylogeny of this taxonomically difficult group is presented, and 33 species are accepted. Each of the five novel species had a unique extrolite profile of known and uncharacterized metabolites and various compounds, such as penicillic acid, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics.
The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine ciliates, Frontonia mengi spec. nov. and Frontonia magna spec. nov., isolated from coastal waters in northern and southern China, respectively, were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Frontonia mengi spec. nov. is characterized by its slender body shape, with a length-to-width ratio of about 5 : 1, about 52 somatic kineties and the structure of its buccal apparatus. Frontonia magna spec. nov. can be recognized by the combination of huge body size, about 200 somatic kineties, five or six vestibular kineties and four-rowed peniculi 1–3. Phylogenetic trees based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were constructed by means of Bayesian inference and maximum-parsimony. Results showed that F. mengi and F. magna are sister to each other within the ‘core’ clade of Frontonia that also includes Frontonia lynni and Frontonia tchibisovae and that the genus Frontonia may be polyphyletic, because one species, Frontonia didieri, always groups with Paramecium and Apofrontonia.
The morphology and molecular phylogeny of two novel urostylid ciliates, Tunicothrix brachysticha n. sp. and Tunicothrix multinucleata n. sp., were investigated using the techniques of living observation, protargol impregnation and small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing. Both species were found to be frequent in muddy-sand sediment but very rare in sandy sediment of the intertidal zone of Qingdao Bay, China. Tunicothrix brachysticha is about 90 × 30 µm in vivo, with a broadly clavate body shape, and is characterized by a rather short midventral row terminating at 40 % of the body length and a right marginal row 1 terminating at mid-body. Tunicothrix multinucleata is about 190 × 30 µm in vivo, and is characterized by a clavate body shape and the presence of 7–10 macronuclear nodules. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Tunicothrix clustered robustly with Parabirojimia, forming a clade that branches from the Urostylida core clade with high bootstrap values. Based on the morphological and molecular data, we establish a new family, Parabirojimidae n. fam., which comprises Parabirojimia and Tunicothrix and is distinguished by a unique, roughly T-shaped bipartite adoral zone of membranelles, three enlarged frontal cirri and a midventral complex with midventral pairs confined to the buccal field.