A Gram-positive-staining, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain IMMIB L-1606T, isolated from genital swabs of a horse, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Arthrobacter, displaying sequence similarities of 93.5–99.1 % with the type strains of recognized species of the genus. Cell-wall analysis revealed peptidoglycan type A3α l-Lys–l-Ser–l-Thr–l-Ala. DNA–DNA hybridization data and biochemical characterization of strain IMMIB L-1606T enabled the isolate to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from phylogenetically closely related species of the genus Arthrobacter. Therefore, it is concluded that strain IMMIB L-1606T represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter equi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Arthrobacter equi sp. nov. is IMMIB L-1606T ( = DSM 23395T = CCUG 59597T).
Actinomycete strain RB72T was isolated from woodland bluff soil in northern Alabama, USA, and shown to produce a broad spectrum bacteriocin. Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the strain was determined to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis of the near-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it differed from those of the described streptomycetes available in public databases. The distinctive white aerial hyphae and lack of sporulation suggest a deficiency in the whi pathway of the organism. A combination of substrate utilization patterns, morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA–DNA hybridization results supported the affiliation of strain RB72T to the genus Streptomyces and enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain RB72T from closely related reference strains. Strain RB72T therefore represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces scopuliridis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RB72T ( = DSM 41917T = NRRL B-24574T).
A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain EUM 378T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized root tissue of Eucalyptus microcarpa, a eucalyptus tree known as Grey Box. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, including alignment with taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides, placed this isolate as a member of the family Nocardioidaceae. Strain EUM 378T showed >5.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from other members of this family and was related most closely to Actinopolymorpha alba YIM 48868T (94.2 %) and Actinopolymorpha singaporensis IM 7744T (94.4 %). This Gram-positive, aerobic actinobacterium has well-developed substrate mycelia that fragment into small rods. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the cell wall contains ll-diaminopimelic acid, ribose, glucose and rhamnose. MK-10(H6) is the predominant menaquinone. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence confirmed that strain EUM 378T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Flindersiella endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EUM 378T ( = DSM 45355T = ACM 5289T).
A novel actinomycete, designated strain YIM 67092T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the perennial vine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. collected from Yunnan province, South-west China. The strain formed well differentiated aerial and substrate mycelia and grew in the presence of up to 7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YIM 67092T belonged to the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea rosea GW 12687T (99.0 %). Sequence similarities between strain YIM 67092T and other species of the genus Nonomuraea ranged from 97.8 % (Nonomuraea dietziae DSM 44320T) to 93.8 % (Nonomuraea kuesteri GW 14-1925T). Key morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain YIM 67092T were congruent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.3 mol%. Based on comparative analysis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, including low DNA–DNA hybridization results, strain YIM 67092T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea rhizophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 67092T ( = CCTCC AA 209044T = DSM 45382T).
An actinomycete strain, designated IR27-S3T, was isolated from a forest soil sample collected from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-sporulating, non-motile coccoids or short rods. The strain grew in the presence of 0–7 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 6–8 and at 12–37 °C, with optimum growth at 30 °C. Chemotaxonomically, the strain contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1 cis-9, C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain IR27-S3T was closely related to Nocardioides mesophilus MSL-22T (98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Marmoricola bigeumensis MSL-05T (97.2 %) and Nocardioides jensenii DSM 20641T (96.5 %). On the basis of fatty acid analysis, phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic data, the isolate should be classified in a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides iriomotensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IR27-S3T ( = NBRC 105384T = KACC 14926T).
An actinobacterial strain, designated 72T, was isolated from a traditional salt-fermented seafood in Korea. Colonies were coral red and cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile rods. Strain 72T grew with 0–10 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7–10 and at 15–37 °C. Optimum growth conditions were 2 % NaCl, pH 7.0 and 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain 72T belonged to the genus Dietzia. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), 10-methyl C18 : 0, C17 : 0, C19 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA–DNA hybridization, coupled with physiological and biochemical tests, revealed genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain 72T and other members of the genus Dietzia. Based on these data, strain 72T represents a novel species, for which the name Dietzia alimentaria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 72T ( = JCM 16360T = KACC 21126T).
A Gram-reaction-positive aerobic actinomycete, designated strain IM17-1T, was isolated from a honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The strain formed a branched substrate mycelium and mature aerial mycelium bore short chains of arthrospores with warty surfaces. The cell wall contained meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid (cell-wall type III) and the whole cell sugars were fucose, galactose, glucose, madurose, mannose and ribose. The major isoprenoid quinone was hexahydrogenated menaquinone with nine isoprene units and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (33.8 %), C18 : 1ω9c (32.7 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) (8.7 %) and 10-methyl C18 : 0 (8.2 %). The phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. These morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with the classification of IM17-1T within the genus Actinomadura. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain IM17-1T was closely related to the type strains of Actinomadura cremea subsp. cremea (98.1 %) and Actinomadura cremea subsp. rifamycini (98.6 %); however, it represented a distinct phylogenetic lineage from the other species within this genus. The unique genetic characteristics were reaffirmed by low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain IM17-1T and the two most closely related type strains, A. cremea subsp. cremea JCM 3308T (56.5±4.9 %) and A. cremea subsp. rifamycini JCM 3309T (31.0±22.6 %), and further supported the proposal of IM17-1T as a novel species. Strain IM17-1T ( = JCM 16576T = TISTR 1980T) thus represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura apis sp. nov. is proposed. In addition, the genotypic and phenotypic data suggested the reclassification of Actinomadura cremea subsp. rifamycini Gauze et al. 1987 as a separate species, Actinomadura rifamycini sp. nov., comb. nov.
A Gram-positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strain with rod-shaped spores, designated YIM 63158T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of Artemisia annua L. collected from Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 63158T belonged to the genus Pseudonocardia. The closest neighbours were ‘Pseudonocardia sichuanensis’ KLBMP 1115 (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudonocardia adelaidensis EUM 221T (99.1 %) and Pseudonocardia zijingensis DSM 44774T (98.8 %); sequence similarities to other members of the genus Pseudonocardia ranged from 98.6 to 94.4 %. The chemotaxonomic characteristics, such as the cell-wall diaminopimelic acid, whole-cell sugars, fatty acid components and major menaquinones, suggested that the isolate belonged to the genus Pseudonocardia. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.3 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, including low DNA–DNA relatedness between the isolate and other members of the genus Pseudonocardia, it is proposed that strain YIM 63158T represents a novel species in this genus, with the name Pseudonocardia kunmingensis sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 63158T ( = DSM 45301T = CCTCC AA 208081T).
Two facultatively anaerobic bacterial strains, designated WR061T and WR054, were isolated from rice-straw residue in a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms in Japan. The two strains were phylogenetically positioned close to one another and had almost the same phenotypic properties. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, irregular rods. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) was required for growth. The strains utilized various carbohydrates, including hexoses and disaccharides, and produced acetate and propionate from these carbohydrates. Pentoses and polysaccharides were not utilized. They grew at 20–37 °C (optimum 35 °C) and pH 5.3–8.0 (optimum pH 6.8–7.5). Catalase and nitrate-reducing activities were detected. Aesculin was hydrolysed. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 0 DMA, the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-9(H4) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3–69.5 mol%. The diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains in the phylum Actinobacteria. Both strains were remotely related to the species in the family Propionibacteriaceae and Propionibacterium propionicum JCM 5830T was the most closely related type strain with a sequence similarity of 91.6 %. Based on phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, the two novel strains together represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Propioniciclava tarda gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WR061T ( = JCM 15804T = DSM 22130T).
The names ‘Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus’ and ‘Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense’, proposed by Leao et al. (2009, J Clin Microbiol 47, 2691–2698), cannot be validly published. The purpose of this report is to provide a description in accordance with the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). Moreover, the proposal of the name ‘Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense’ is contrary to Rule 38 and the correct name of this taxon, at the rank of subspecies, is Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii comb. nov. A description of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus subsp. nov. and an emended description of Mycobacterium abscessus are also given.