An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49T, was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell’s Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49T is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49T stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49T grew at 50–73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7–5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h−1 was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49T was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49T represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49T ( = DSM 23976T = ICMP 18418T).