A Gram-staining-positive coccus, designated CC-SPL15-2T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sesuvium portulacastrum. By 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was shown that strain CC-SPL15-2T belonged to the genus Salinicoccus. The isolate was most closely related to Salinicoccus hispanicus DSM 5352T (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Salinicoccus roseus DSM 5351T (96.7 %); similarities to all other members of the genus Salinicoccus were <96.5 %. In accordance with characteristics of the genus Salinicoccus, the quinone system was mainly composed of menaquinone MK-6. The polar lipid profile exhibited the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. In the polyamine pattern, spermidine was the predominant compound. The fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0, which supported the affiliation of strain CC-SPL15-2T to the genus Salinicoccus. DNA–DNA relatedness between strain CC-SPL15-2T and S. hispanicus CCUG 43288T was 42 and 32 % (reciprocal analysis). From these data as well as from physiological and biochemical tests, a clear differentiation of strain CC-SPL15-2T from S. hispanicus and other members of the genus Salinicoccus was possible. We propose that strain CC-SPL15-2T be assigned to a novel species, with the name Salinicoccus sesuvii sp. nov. The type strain is CC-SPL15-2T ( = DSM 23267T = CCM 7756T).
Five strains (Mizu2-1T, Gon2-7, Koba6-1, Koyu2-2 and Miya2-2) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from flowers in Oze National Park, Japan, using anaerobic cultivation. The five isolates were found to share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known LAB; the closest recognized relatives of strain Mizu2-1T were the type strains of Lactobacillus kunkeei (94.9 %), Lactobacillus kefiri (94.1 %) and Lactobacillus buchneri (93.9 %). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and heterofermentative. Anaerobic growth was better than aerobic growth. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus ozensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Mizu2-1T ( = JCM 17196T = DSM 23829T).
The development of molecular tools and in particular the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing has had a profound effect on the taxonomy of many bacterial groups. Gram-positive organisms that encompass the genera Lactobacillus and Clostridium within the Firmicutes are examples of taxa that have undergone major revisions based on phylogenetic information. A consequence of these reorganizations is that a number of organisms are now recognized as being misclassified. Previous studies have demonstrated that Lactobacillus catenaformis and Lactobacillus vitulinus are phylogenetically unrelated to Lactobacillus sensu stricto, being placed within the Clostridia rRNA cluster XVII. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented, it is proposed that L. catenaformis and L. vitulinus be reclassified in two new genera, named respectively Eggerthia gen. nov., with the type species Eggerthia catenaformis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain DSM 20559T = ATCC 25536T = CCUG 48174T = CIP 104817T = JCM 1121T) and Kandleria gen. nov., with the type species Kandleria vitulina gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain LMG 18931T = ATCC 27783T = CCUG 32236T = DSM 20405T = JCM 1143T).
An anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium, strain SET IS-9T, was isolated from an Icelandic hot spring. Cells of strain SET IS-9T are short, slightly curved, motile rods. The strain grows chemolithotrophically on CO, producing equimolar quantities of H2 and CO2. It also grows fermentatively on lactate or pyruvate in the presence of yeast extract (0.2 g l−1). Products of pyruvate fermentation are acetate, CO2 and H2. Growth occurs at 50–70 °C, with an optimum at 65 °C, and at pH 5.0–8.0, with an optimum at pH 5.5–6.0. The generation time during chemolithotrophic growth on CO under optimal conditions is 2.0 h. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that the organism belongs to the genus Carboxydothermus. On the basis of phenotypic features and phylogenetic analysis, Carboxydothermus islandicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SET IS-9T ( = DSM 21830T = VKM B-2561T). An emended description of the genus Carboxydothermus is also given.