A Gram-reaction-negative, yellow-pigmented, gliding, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium (RA5-111T) was isolated from foreshore soil. The taxonomic status of the novel isolate was determined using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain RA5-111T could be assigned to the genus Gramella, with sequence similarities of 97.7, 97.3 and 96.2 % to the type strains of Gramella echinicola, Gramella portivictoriae and Gramella marina, respectively. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics also supported the affiliation of strain RA5-111T with the genus Gramella. The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.1 mol%. The isolate contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and a summed feature (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c) as major fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown phospholipids as the polar lipids. DNA–DNA relatedness, phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data clearly indicate that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Gramella, for which the name Gramella gaetbulicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA5-111T ( = KCTC 23022T = JCM 16528T = NBRC 106272T).
The taxonomic position, growth characteristics and antibiotic resistance properties of a slightly yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated R26T, isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, were studied. The isolate produced rod-shaped cells, which stained Gram-negative. The bacterium had two growth optima at 30–31 °C and 37 °C. Strain R26T demonstrated natural antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate showed 98.6 % sequence similarity to that of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ATCC 13253T and 98.2 % similarity to that of Elizabethkingia miricola GTC 862T. The major fatty acids of strain R26T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c/t). Strain R26T contained only menaquinone MK-6 and showed a complex polar lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid and unknown polar lipids and glycolipids. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments with E. meningoseptica CCUG 214T ( = ATCC 13253T) and E. miricola KCTC 12492T ( = GTC 862T) gave relatedness values of 34.5 % (reciprocal 41.5 %) and 35.0 % (reciprocal 25.7 %), respectively. DNA–DNA hybridization results and some differentiating biochemical properties indicate that strain R26T represents a novel species, for which the name Elizabethkingia anophelis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R26T ( = CCUG 60038T = CCM 7804T).
A Gram-staining-negative bacterium, designated strain BLN2T, was isolated from within the roots of reeds (Phragmites australis) in Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China) and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic and devoid of flagella, but showed gliding motility. Strain BLN2T produced yellow, translucent, circular and convex colonies, with optimal growth at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.8 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain BLN2T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and was most closely related to Flavobacterium anhuiense CGMCC 1.6859T (97.0 % sequence similarity). The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain BLN2T and F. anhuiense CGMCC 1.6859T was 25.7 %. Based on the phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference presented, it is concluded that strain BLN2T represents a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium phragmitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BLN2T ( = DSM 23314T = CGMCC 1.10370T).
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated CS100T, was isolated from soil in Chungbuk, Korea. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative studies based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain CS100T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CS100T showed the highest sequence similarities to Flavobacterium glaciei JCM 13953T (97.6 %) and Flavobacterium johnsoniae KACC 11410T (97.1 %). Sequence similarity to other members of the genus Flavobacterium was 91.5–97.0 %. Growth occurred at 4–30 °C, at pH 5.0–9.0 and in the presence of 0–2 % (w/v) NaCl. Flexirubin-type pigments were produced. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (17.3 %), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c, 15.5 %) and C16 : 0 (11.8 %). The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. Strain CS100T hydrolysed skimmed milk and gelatin, but not chitin or pectin, and showed oxidase and catalase activities. DNA–DNA relatedness was 3.0 % with F. glaciei JCM 13953T and 11.5 % with F. johnsoniae KACC 11410T. On the basis of the evidence from this study, strain CS100T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CS100T ( = KACC 15048T = JCM 17386T).