A novel, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming, halophilic bacterial strain, J18T, was isolated from a traditional salt-fermented seafood made of gizzard shad in Korea. Colonies were convex, cream-coloured and 1.0–2.0 mm in diameter after incubation for 3 days on marine agar. Growth occurred at pH 7.0–11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0), at 4–40 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and in the presence of 0–30 % NaCl (optimum, 9–10 %). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain J18T was related most closely to Virgibacillus byunsanensis ISL-24T (96.3 % similarity), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964T (96.2 %), Virgibacillus halodenitrificans DSM 10037T (96.0 %), Virgibacillus arcticus Hal 1T (95.5 %) and Virgibacillus necropolis LMG 19488T (95.5 %). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain J18T was 37.0 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the meso-diaminopimelic acid type. The major quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain J18T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus alimentarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is J18T ( = KACC 14624T = JCM 16994T).
A novel Gram-staining-positive, moderately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic rod, designated JSM 076093T, was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0.5–25 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5–8 %) and at pH 6.0–10.5 (optimum pH 8.0) and 5–40 °C (optimum 30–35 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total) were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 076093T belonged to the genus Bacillus and was related most closely to Bacillus hwajinpoensis SW-72T (99.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Bacillus algicola KMM 3737T (97.3 %). The combination of results from the phylogenetic analysis, DNA–DNA hybridization and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization supported the conclusion that strain JSM 076093T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus hemicentroti sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 076093T ( = DSM 23007T = KCTC 13710T) as the type strain.
The taxonomic status of Paralactobacillus selangorensis is described and, based on evidence presented, transfer of the species to the genus Lactobacillus with the name Lactobacillus selangorensis comb. nov. is proposed. This reclassification is supported by multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and portions of the cpn60, pheS and rpoA genes. Mode of cell division and existing phenotypic information also show that P. selangorensis cannot be differentiated from the genus Lactobacillus. The type strain of Lactobacillus selangorensis comb. nov. is ATCC BAA-66T ( = LMG 17710T = CIP 106482T).
Two novel strains of marine lactic acid bacteria, isolated from decaying marine algae collected from a subtropical area of Japan, are described. The isolates, designated O24-2T and O25-2, were Gram-positive, non-sporulating and non-motile. They lacked catalase and quinones. Under anaerobic cultivation conditions, lactate was produced from glucose with the production of formate, acetate and ethanol in a molar ratio of approximately 2 : 1 : 1. Under aerobic cultivation conditions, acetate and lactate were produced from carbohydrates and related compounds. The isolates were slightly halophilic, highly halotolerant and alkaliphilic. They were able to grow in 0–17.0 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth of strains O24-2T and O25-2 at 1.0–3.0 and 1.0–2.0 % (w/v) NaCl, respectively. Growth of strain O24-2T was observed at pH 7.5–9.5, with optimum growth at pH 8.0–8.5. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates occupied a phylogenetic position within the genus Alkalibacterium, showing highest similarity (99.6 %) to Alkalibacterium putridalgicola T129-2-1T. Although sequence similarity was high, the DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain O24-2T and A. putridalgicola T129-2-1T was 27 %, indicating that they are members of distinct species. The DNA G+C contents of O24-2T and O25-2 were 43.7 and 44.4 mol%, respectively, and DNA–DNA relatedness between the isolates was 89 %. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was type A4β, Orn-d-Asp. The major cellular fatty acid components were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω9c. Based on phenotypic characteristics and genetic distinctiveness, the isolates were classified as representatives of a novel species within the genus Alkalibacterium, for which the name Alkalibacterium subtropicum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is O24-2T ( = DSM 23664T = NBRC 107172T).