The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 species with validly published names and this number increases every year. The value of multilocus sequence analysis applied to the systematics of Streptomyces species has been well demonstrated in several recently published papers. In this study the sequence fragments of four housekeeping genes, atpD, recA, rpoB and trpB, were determined for the type strains of 10 known phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabies, Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, Streptomyces luridiscabiei, Streptomyces niveiscabiei, Streptomyces puniciscabiei, Streptomyces reticuliscabiei, Streptomyces stelliscabiei, Streptomyces turgidiscabies and Streptomyces ipomoeae, as well as six uncharacterized phytopathogenic Streptomyces isolates. The type strains of 52 other species, including 19 species observed to be phylogenetically closely related to these, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, were also included in the study. Phylogenetic analysis of single gene alignments and a concatenated four-gene alignment demonstrated that the phytopathogenic species are taxonomically distinct from each other in spite of high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and provided a tool for the identification of unknown putative phytopathogenic Streptomyces strains at the species level.