The taxonomic positions of two thermophilic actinomycetes isolated from an arid Australian soil sample were established based on an investigation using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Amycolatopsis and formed distinct phyletic lines in the Amycolatopsis methanolica 16S rRNA subclade. The two organisms were distinguished from one another and from the type strains of related species of the genus Amycolatopsis using a range of phenotypic properties. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that the two isolates be classified in the genus Amycolatopsis as Amycolatopsis thermophila sp. nov. (type strain GY088T = NCIMB 14699T = NRRL B-24836T) and Amycolatopsis viridis sp. nov. (type strain GY115T = NCIMB 14700T = NRRL B-24837T).
A novel actinomycete, designated strain DLS-45T, was isolated from soil from the surface of a rock collected from the peak of Darangshi Oreum (Small Mountain) in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Substrate mycelium was well developed, but aerial mycelium was scant on most of the media tested. Spherical to subspherical spores on the aerial mycelium were in chains that were arranged in hooks and their surfaces were warty. The combination of morphological and chemical features supported the classification of the new isolate in the genus Actinomadura. The neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the family Thermomonosporaceae and formed a coherent cluster with Actinomadura pelletieri IMSNU 22169T (98.0 % sequence similarity). The other closest relatives were Actinomadura bangladeshensis 3-46-b(3)T (98.2 %) and Actinomadura chokoriensis 3-25-a(11)T (97.9 %). Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain DLS-45T and the type strains of the phylogenetic relatives were less than 17 %. A battery of phenotypic, genotypic and DNA–DNA relatedness data indicated that strain DLS-45T represented a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura meridiana sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain DLS-45T ( = KCTC 19558T = DSM 45252T).
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM F103T, was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of the Tarim basin in Xinjiang province, north-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Amycolatopsis and was most closely related to Amycolatopsis halophila YIM 93223T (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). However, DNA–DNA relatedness between these two strains, based on triplicate experiments, was only 31.6 %. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and ribose, glucose and galactose as the major whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and glucosamine-containing phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.4 mol%. The phenotypic data clearly distinguished the isolate from its closest relatives. The combined phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicate that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis. The proposed name is Amycolatopsis salitolerans sp. nov., with TRM F103T ( = JCM 15899T = CCTCC AB 208326T) as the type strain.
A novel xylan-degrading actinomycete, strain YIM 61515T, was isolated from surface-sterilized leaves of the medicinal plant Maytenus austroyunnanensis. Cells were Gram-positive and non-spore-forming, produced primary branches and formed white to yellowish white colonies on the media tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 61515T was most similar to Promicromonospora aerolata V54AT and Promicromonospora vindobonensis V45T (99.4 and 99.1 % sequence similarity, respectively). The isolate formed a separate lineage in a cluster containing P. aerolata V54AT. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolate and other members of the genus Promicromonospora ranged from 96.3 to 98.4 %. Chemotaxonomic data, including major menaquinones, fatty acid compositions and polar lipid profiles, supported the placement of strain YIM 61515T in the genus Promicromonospora. DNA–DNA relatedness, physiological and biochemical data showed that strain YIM 61515T could be distinguished from members of all known species of the genus Promicromonospora and therefore represented a novel species. The name Promicromonospora xylanilytica sp. nov. is proposed, with YIM 61515T ( = DSM 21603T = CCTCC AA 208046T) as type strain.
A novel Gram-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain RB-62T, was isolated during a study of culturable bacteria from the gut of Moechotypa diphysis (Pascoe) and its taxonomic position was investigated. Strain RB-62T grew at 15–30 °C and pH 5.0–8.5. The isoprenoid quinones were menaquinones MK-11 (77.1 %), MK-10 (11.7 %) and MK-12 (11.2 %). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (34.6 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (29.8 %), iso-C16 : 0 (17.0 %) and cyclohexyl-C17 : 0 (11.4 %). The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain RB-62T was 70.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain RB-62T was affiliated with the genus Herbiconiux cluster within the family Microbacteriaceae, and was related most closely to Herbiconiux ginsengi wged11T (98.08 % similarity). The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain RB-62T and H. ginsengi wged11T was 43.2 % (reciprocal 66.7 %). Phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics clearly distinguished strain RB-62T from recognized species of the genus Herbiconiux. Based on data from the present polyphasic study, strain RB-62T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Herbiconiux, for which the name Herbiconiux moechotypicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RB-62T ( = KCTC 19653T = JCM 16117T).