A novel facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated Y12T, was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater bio-treatment facility. The strain was able to degrade about 90 % of added propanil (100 mg l−1) within 3 days of incubation. Growth occurred in the presence of 0–4.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %), at 10–40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 5.5–10.0 (optimum pH 7.0). Vesicular internal membrane structures and photoheterotrophic growth were not observed. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 and the major cellular fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Y12T was 63.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain Y12T was a member of the genus Catellibacterium, as it showed highest sequence similarities to Catellibacterium caeni DCA-1T (99.1 %) and <96.0 % similarities with other species of the genus Catellibacterium. Strain Y12T showed low DNA–DNA relatedness values with C. caeni DCA-1T. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic properties, strain Y12T represents a novel species of the genus Catellibacterium, for which the name Catellibacterium nanjingense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y12T ( = CCTCC AB 2010218T = KCTC 23298T). An emended description of the genus Catellibacterium is also presented.
Two Gram-negative, aerobic strains, Y215T and Y226T, were isolated from sediment from Yueqing Bay, Zhejiang Province, China. The two novel strains were both positive for oxidase activity, nitrate reduction, and aesculin and casein decomposition, but negative for gelatin and tyrosine decomposition. Catalase activity, and starch and Tween 80 decomposition differed between the two strains. Cells of both novel strains were rod-shaped in young cultures and ovoid in older cultures. Optimum NaCl concentration and pH range for growth of both strains were 2.0–3.0 % (w/v) and 7.0–8.0, respectively, whereas the optimum growth temperature for strain Y215T (25–30 °C) was lower than that for strain Y226T (30–37 °C). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains Y215T and Y226T were 54.0 and 56.7 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids in both isolates were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c, which was also the case in the reference strains apart from Microbulbifer salipaludis, which possessed C18 : 1ω7c as the predominant fatty acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the major polar lipids of both strains were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. Both strains had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to members of the genus Microbulbifer. Strain Y215T was closely related to the type strains of Microbulbifer maritimus (97.6 %) and Microbulbifer donghaiensis (97.5 %), whereas strain Y226T was closely related to the type strain of M. salipaludis (97.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains Y215T and Y226T fell into two separate clusters. The DNA–DNA relatedness values of strain Y215T with M. maritimus TF-17T and M. donghaiensis CN85T were 34.1 and 32.8 %, respectively, whereas that between strain Y226T and M. salipaludis SM-1T was 38.0 %; these values are significantly lower than the threshold value for the delineation of bacterial species. On the basis of their distinct taxonomic characteristics, the two isolates represent two novel species of the genus Microbulbifer, for which the names Microbulbifer marinus sp. nov. and Microbulbifer yueqingensis sp. nov. are proposed; the type strains are Y215T ( = CGMCC 1.10657T = JCM 17211T) and Y226T ( = CGMCC 1.10658T = JCM 17212T), respectively.
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, YCS-5T, was isolated from seawater off the southern coast of Korea. Strain YCS-5T grew optimally at 30 °C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YCS-5T fell within the clade comprising Kangiella species. Strain YCS-5T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.6, 95.7 and 97.9 % to the type strains of Kangiella koreensis, Kangiella aquimarina and Kangiella japonica, respectively, and less than 89.8 % to strains of other species used in the phylogenetic analysis. Strain YCS-5T contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C11 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 1ω9c as the major fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain YCS-5T was similar to that of K. koreensis SW-125T, with phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid as major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 47 mol%. The mean DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain YCS-5T and K. japonica JCM 16211T was 12 %. Differential phenotypic properties and the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness of strain YCS-5T demonstrated that this strain is distinguishable from other Kangiella species. On the basis of the data presented, strain YCS-5T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kangiella, for which the name Kangiella geojedonensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YCS-5T ( = KCTC 23420T = CCUG 60526T).
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Y9T, was isolated from a soil sample collected in Ningxia Province in China and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Strain Y9T contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone. Major fatty acid components were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Y9T was 68.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Massilia. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Y9T and the type strains of recognized Massilia species ranged from 95.2 to 98.2 %, the highest values being with Massilia albidiflava 45T (98.2 %) and Massilia lutea 101T (98.0 %). However, levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain Y9T and M. albidiflava KCTC 12343T and M. lutea KCTC 12345T were 37 and 26 %, respectively. Strain Y9T was clearly differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic relatives in the genus Massilia based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties. Therefore, strain Y9T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y9T ( = CGMCC 1.10685T = KCTC 23585T).
An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35T, was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4–30 °C and pH 7.1–10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36T (98.1 % sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18T (97.8 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35T and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97 %. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C18 : 1 (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C12 : 1 3-OH and C10 : 0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA–DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35T and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11 %. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35T ( = KCTC 12722T = JCM 14020T).
A yellow-pigmented, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-degrading bacterium, designated F2T, was isolated from an HCH dumpsite at Ummari village in Lucknow, India. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Sphingobium. Its closest neighbour was Sphingobium japonicum UT26T (99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content was 65.7 mol%. The polyamine profile showed the presence of spermidine. The respiratory pigment was ubiquinone Q-10. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (12.5 %), C14 : 0 2-OH (8.1 %), summed feature 3 (consisting of C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 5.8 %) and summed feature 8 (consisting of C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c; 53.1 %). The major polar lipids of strain F2T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid. DNA–DNA relatedness and biochemical and physiological characters clearly distinguished the isolate from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Thus, strain F2T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobium, for which the name Sphingobium lucknowense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F2T ( = MTCC 9456T = CCM 7544T).
A Gram-negative, aerobic, ovoid to rod-shaped bacterial strain, KME 002T was isolated from a marine ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, off the coast of Gangneung, Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria and was closely related to the type strains of Dinoroseobacter shibae, Roseovarius crassostreae and Pseudoruegeria aquimaris with 95.0, 94.7 and 94.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. KME 002T was an obligately halophilic bacterium requiring 1 to 5 % (w/v) NaCl, with an absolute requirement for magnesium chloride for growth. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum and showed budding fission. The predominant cellular fatty acid of the isolate was C18 : 1ω7c and Q-10 was the major ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 71.6 mol%. The major secondary metabolites from cultures in liquid medium were cholic acid derivatives, including 3α,12α-hydroxy-3-keto-glycocholanic acid, 12-hydroxy-3-keto-glycocholanic acid, nutriacholic acid and deoxycholic acid. These characteristics determined in this polyphasic study suggest that strain KME 002T represents a novel species in a new genus of the family Rhodobacteraceae. The name Hasllibacter halocynthiae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate, and the type strain is KME 002T ( = JCM 16214T = KCCM 90082T).
Three strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria with bipolar flagella were isolated from acidic tundra wetland soils near the city of Vorkuta and from the Chukotka and Yugorsky Peninsulas and designated strains V-022T, Ch-022 and Ju-022. The cells were rod-shaped, 0.5–0.6 µm in width and 1.3–4.5 µm in length and reproduced by irregular fission. These bacteria were facultative methylotrophs that used methanol, methylamines and a wide range of other sources of carbon and energy such as sugars and polysaccharides, ethanol and amino acids. The isolates used the Calvin–Benson pathway for the assimilation of one-carbon compounds and were unable to fix nitrogen. The new strains were moderately acidophilic and psychrotolerant, capable of growth over a pH range of 4.0 to 7.8, with optimum growth at pH 5.5–6.0. Growth occurred between 4 and 30 °C (optimum 20–25 °C). The principal phospholipid fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. The DNA G+C content of strain V-022T was 65.2 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that all three isolates V-022T, Ch-022 and Yu-022 exhibited almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences (99.9 % gene sequence similarity) and formed a new lineage within the class Alphaproteobacteria. The name Methylorosula polaris is suggested to accommodate this new genus and novel species with strain V-022T ( = DSM 22001T = VKM V-2485T) as the type strain of the type species.
Human Psychrobacter isolates, other than Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, are predominantly designated Psychrobacter immobilis. Phenotypic and genotypic testing of Psychrobacter isolates that have been deposited in different culture collections as P. immobilis indicates that most of these human isolates belong to the species Psychrobacter faecalis and Psychrobacter pulmonis.
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated DPG-21T, was isolated from seawater from the South Sea in Korea, and investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain DPG-21T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0, at 30 °C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. In a neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain DPG-21T clustered with Tropicimonas isoalkanivorans B51T (with a sequence similarity of 97.1 %); the novel strain showed lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<95.4 %) with the other species included in the tree. The mean DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain DPG-21T and T. isoalkanivorans DSM 19548T was 12 %. The predominant ubiquinones of strain DPG-21T were Q-10 and Q-9 while C18 : 1ω7c was the strain’s major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile of strain DPG-21T was similar to that of T. isoalkanivorans DSM 19548T. The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 69.6 mol%. Some phenotypic properties and the phylogenetic and genetic data indicated that strain DPG-21T was distinct from T. isoalkanivorans and represents a novel species of the genus Tropicimonas, for which the name Tropicimonas aquimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DPG-21T ( = KCTC 23424T = CCUG 60524T).
A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, short-rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated ABP-4T, was isolated from a freshwater spring in Taiwan and was characterized using the polyphasic taxonomy approach. Growth occurred at 20–40 °C (optimum, 30–37 °C), at pH 7.0–10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0–9.0) and with 0–3 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ABP-4T, together with Aquabacterium fontiphilum CS-6T (96.4 % sequence similarity), Aquabacterium commune B8T (96.1 %), Aquabacterium citratiphilum B4T (95.5 %) and Aquabacterium parvum B6T (94.7 %), formed a deep line within the order Burkholderiales. Strain ABP-4T contained summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), C18 : 1 ω7c and C16 : 0 as predominant fatty acids. The major cellular hydroxy fatty acid was C10 : 0 3-OH. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 68.6 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, diphosphatidylglycerol and several uncharacterized phospholipids. The DNA–DNA relatedness of strain ABP-4T with respect to recognized species of the genus Aquabacterium was less than 70 %. On the basis of the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain ABP-4T represents a novel species in the genus Aquabacterium, for which the name Aquabacterium limnoticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ABP-4T ( = BCRC 80167T = KCTC 23306T).
A novel alphaproteobacterial strain, designated CPCC 100156T, was isolated from a forest soil sample collected from Hainan Island, South China, and subjected to taxonomic investigation using a polyphasic approach. The pink- to rosy-coloured colonies on TSA and YM agar were smooth and moist. Good growth occurred at 28–32 °C and at pH 7.0–7.5. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC), hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine (OH-PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) and two unidentified aminolipids (AL1, AL2), with a minor amount of ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid. (NPG). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c /C18 : 1ω6c) (49.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c) (22.5 %), and C16 : 0 (14.0 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.3 mol%. The organism showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.37 % with Belnapia moabensis DSM 16746T. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the family Acetobacteraceae and consistently formed a robust cluster with Belnapia moabensis DSM 16746T in the phylogenetic tree. The DNA–DNA hybridization value between the new isolate and Belnapia moabensis DSM 16746T was 45.6 %. On the basis of the taxonomic evidence, it is proposed that strain CPCC 100156T represents a novel species, for which the name Belnapia rosea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CPCC 100156T ( = DSM 23312T = CGMCC 1.10758T). The description of the genus Belnapia is emended accordingly.
Two psychrophilic strains, Cr7-05T and Cr4-44T, isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite, were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Both strains were psychrophilic, showing good growth over a temperature range of 1–20 °C. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates included the presence of C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the major cellular fatty acids, Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown glycolipids as major polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains Cr7-05T and Cr4-44T were 61.4 and 63.6 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two isolates belong to the genus Devosia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 98.6 %, but DNA–DNA hybridization indicated 54 % relatedness. Strains Cr7-05T and Cr4-44T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.7–97.2 and 94.9–96.9 %, respectively, to the type strains of recognized Devosia species. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness data, strains Cr7-05T and Cr4-44T represent two novel species within the genus Devosia, for which the names Devosia psychrophila sp. nov. (type strain Cr7-05T = DSM 22950T = CGMCC 1.10210T = CIP 110130T) and Devosia glacialis sp. nov. (type strain Cr4-44T = CGMCC 1.10691T = LMG 26051T) are proposed. An emended description of the genus Devosia is also provided.