A Gram-staining-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, BR-3T, was isolated from a tidal flat on the western coast of Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic study. Strain BR-3T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 6.5–7.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BR-3T fell within the clade comprising species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, joining the type strain of Mucilaginibacter rigui, with which it exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.2 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain BR-3T and the type strains of the other species of the genus Mucilaginibacter were in the range 93.8–95.9 %. A mean DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain BR-3T and M. rigui KCTC 12534T was 21 %. Strain BR-3T contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and iso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 49.8 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness of strain BR-3T demonstrated that this strain is separate from M. rigui as well as the other species of the genus Mucilaginibacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain BR-3T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter lutimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR-3T ( = KCTC 23461T = CCUG 60742T).
A Gram-staining-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated HWR-17T, was isolated from seawater of the Yellow Sea in Korea. Strain HWR-17T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0, at 30 °C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HWR-17T clustered with the two Mariniflexile species in the family Flavobacteriaceae, exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.1–97.2 % to their type strains and less than 95.7 % sequence similarity to other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain HWR-17T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile of strain HWR-17T contained phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and four unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain HWR-17T was 35.7 mol% and it exhibited 11 and 10 % DNA–DNA relatedness, respectively, with Mariniflexile gromovii KCTC 12570T and Mariniflexile fucanivorans DSM 18792T. The phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic properties revealed that strain HWR-17T is distinguishable from the two recognized Mariniflexile species. On the basis of the data presented, strain HWR-17T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mariniflexile, for which the name Mariniflexile aquimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HWR-17T ( = KCTC 23346T = CCUG 60529T). An emended description of the genus Mariniflexile is also proposed.
The taxonomic position of two strains of a novel heterotrophic, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, gliding, dark-orange-pigmented bacterium, designated KMM 6217T and KMM 6332, was determined. The strains grew at 10–40 °C and with 0.5–8.0 % NaCl. They were catalase- and oxidase-positive, produced flexirubin-type pigments and hydrolysed aesculin, gelatin, starch, Tween 80 and DNA. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1, iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine as the major component, three unknown aminolipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 34.7–34.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the novel isolates could be placed in the family Flavobacteriaceae. The nearest neighbours of strains KMM 6217T and KMM 6332 were members of the genera Bizionia, Formosa, Lacinutrix, Meridianimaribacter, Mesoflavibacter and Winogradskyella, with sequence similarities to the type strains of species of these genera of 92.8–95.2, 93.7–94.5, 94.1–94.7, 94.9, 94.6 and 93.5–94.4 %, respectively. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strains KMM 6217T and KMM 6332 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum ‘Bacteroidetes’, for which the name Corallibacter vietnamensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KMM 6217T ( = JCM 17525T = KCTC 23026T).
A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, DPG-3T, was isolated from seawater from the South Sea in Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain DPG-3T grew optimally at 30 °C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. In a neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain DPG-3T fell within a clade comprising Algoriphagus species and appeared most closely related to Algoriphagus halophilus JC 2051T (96.1 %16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Algoriphagus lutimaris S1-3T (96.4 %). The type strains of other Algoriphagus species showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 92.9–96.0 % with strain DPG-3T. The predominant menaquinone of strain DPG-3T was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3). The major polar lipids detected in strain DPG-3T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified lipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain DPG-3T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Algoriphagus, for which the name Algoriphagus namhaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DPG-3T ( = KCTC 23419T = CCUG 60523T).
Three exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria, designated strains DRP28T, DRP29 and DRP31, were isolated from the rhizoplane of Angelica sinensis from the Geumsan, Republic of Korea. Cells were straight rods, Gram reaction-negative, aerobic, non-motile, and catalase- and oxidase- positive. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these bacteria belong to the genus Mucilaginibacter in the phylum Bacteroidetes. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to strains of recognized species of the genus Mucilaginibacter were 93.8–97.4 %. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The strains contained MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone. Strains DRP28T, DRP29 and DRP31 formed a single, distinct genomospecies with DNA G+C contents of 41.9–42.7 mol% and DNA hybridization values of 82.6–86.8 %; the strains exhibited DNA–DNA hybridization values of only 20.4–41.3 % with related species of the genus Mucilaginibacter. On the basis of evidence presented in this study, strains DRP28T, DRP29 and DRP31 were considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter polysacchareus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DRP28T ( = KACC 15075T = NBRC 107757T).
Two bacterial isolates from the surface water of a haloalkaline lake on the Mongolia Plateau, strains MIM18T and MIM19, were characterized; their morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characters, and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, were determined. The two strains were alkaliphilic, halotolerant, non-motile, aerobic, Gram-negative, orange-red, rod-shaped and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in 0–5.5 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at 1 %. The temperature range for growth was 0–41 °C, with good growth at 28–37 °C and optimum growth at 30–33 °C. The DNA G+C content was 39.8–41.2 mol%. The strains contained menaquinone MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. Predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (28.1–29.3 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (14.6–18.8 %), C15 : 1ω6c (5.3–8.6 %), C14 : 0 2-OH and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (5.4–6.1 %), and iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl (5.0–6.8 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Belliella and Nitritalea of the family Cyclobacteriaceae were the closest related species with sequence similarities of 91.7–92.3 % and 88.2 %, respectively, with strains of these genera; other members of the Cyclobacteriaceae had sequence similarities lower than 88 %. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strains formed a deep-rooted lineage distinct from the clades represented by the genera Belliella, Nitritalea, Indibacter, Aquiflexum, Echinicola, Litoribacter, Cyclobacterium and Algoriphagus. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics mentioned above, the two strains are representatives of a single novel species in a new genus; the name Mongoliitalea lutea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with MIM18T ( = ACCC 05421T = KCTC 23224T) as the type strain.
A Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink bacterial strain was isolated from the soil of a Populus euphratica forest located in Xinjiang, China. The strain, designated strain HYL7-15T, was subjected to a taxonomic analysis using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolate belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and was related to the genus Pontibacter, with sequence similarities ranging from 93.1 to 95.0 % with other species of the genus Pontibacter. Strain HYL7-15T contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and its DNA G+C content was 44.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15 : 0 (16.49 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (10.96 %) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17 : 1 B and/or iso-C17 : 1 I, 18.46 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG); diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), three unknown aminophospholipids (APLs) and two unknown phospholipids (PLs) were also detected. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain HYL7-15T represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter populi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HYL7-15T ( = CCTCC AB 206239T = NRRL B-59488T).
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic to microaerophilic, rod-shaped, red-coloured bacterium, strain T4T, was isolated from a freshwater pipe on Tenerife island. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed in order to characterize the strain in detail. The isolate is surrounded by a slime capsule, occurs singly, in the form of short chains, or in aggregates, and exhibits catalase and oxidase activities. Growth was observed at 15–42 °C. Optimum growth occurred at pH 8 with mono- and disaccharides, followed by polysaccharides and deoxysaccharides, but the bacterium utilized only a restricted spectrum of alcohols, alditols, amides, amines, carboxylic acids and amino acids. Strain T4T tolerated concentrations of 0–4 % (w/v) NaCl and contained MK-7 as predominant isoprenoid quinone as well as carotenoids, but lacked pigments of the flexirubin type. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (32.2 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c; 22.5 %), and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (7.9 %). Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids, aminophospholipids and other lipids of unknown character. The DNA G+C content was approximately 41.8 mol%. The sequence of the 16S-rRNA gene assigned strain T4T to the CFB group, forming a coherent cluster with species of the genus Algoriphagus with the highest similarity of 98.8 % to Algoriphagus aquatilis A8-7T. DNA–DNA hybridization revealed 37.5 % relatedness to strain A8-7T. Based on morphological, physiological and molecular properties as well as on phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain T4T should be placed into the genus Algoriphagus as a novel species, for which the name Algoriphagus aquaeductus sp. nov. (type strain T4T = DSM 19759T = LMG 24398T = NCIMB 14399T) is proposed.
A Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated rod capable of degrading cypermethrin, designated LQY-18T, was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in China. Strain LQY-18T grew at 8–40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.0–10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0–5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (97 %) and the major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 40.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate belonged to the genus Sphingobacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes and showed low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with recognized members of the genus Sphingobacterium. The closest neighbour was Sphingobacterium mizutaii ATCC 33299T (92.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phenotypic, genetic and phylogenetic data, strain LQY-18T ( = ACCC 05410T = CCTCC AB 2010005T = KCTC 23009T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium, for which the name Sphingobacterium wenxiniae sp. nov. is proposed.