An aerobic endospore-forming bacillus (NVH 391-98T) was isolated during a severe food poisoning outbreak in France in 1998, and four other similar strains have since been isolated, also mostly from food poisoning cases. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the Bacillus cereus Group (over 97 % similarity with the current Group species) and phylogenetic distance from other validly described species of the genus Bacillus was less than 95 %. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and MLST data, these novel strains were shown to form a robust and well-separated cluster in the B. cereus Group, and constituted the most distant cluster from species of this Group. Major fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C13 : 0) supported the affiliation of these strains to the genus Bacillus , and more specifically to the B. cereus Group. NVH 391-98T taxon was more specifically characterized by an abundance of iso-C15 : 0 and low amounts of iso-C13 : 0 compared with other members of the B. cereus Group. Genome similarity together with DNA–DNA hybridization values and physiological and biochemical tests made it possible to genotypically and phenotypically differentiate NVH 391-98T taxon from the six current B. cereus Group species. NVH 391-98T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NVH 391-98T ( = DSM 22905T = CIP 110041T).
Strains 1517T and 61DT were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517T and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum , and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61DT and Lactobacillus gasseri , Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii , respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA–DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517T and L. gigeriorum , and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61DT and L. johnsonii , L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri , respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517T ( = CRBIP 24.76T = DSM 23907T) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61DT ( = CRBIP 24.179T = DSM 23910T) as the type strain.
Two Gram-positive-staining, rod-shaped, endospore-forming isolates (UG-2T and UG-3), with an optimum growth temperature of around 37 °C and an optimum pH for growth of about 4, were recovered from an acidic effluent of the uranium mill tailing at Urgeiriça in Central Portugal. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains belonged to the family Sporolactobacillaceae and were closely related to Pullulanibacillus naganoensis ATCC 53909T (97.9 %). Unlike P. naganoensis , strains UG-2T and UG-3 grew in medium containing up to 5000 p.p.m. U(VI) but did not hydrolyse pullulan. Chemotaxonomic data also supported the affiliation of strains UG-2T and UG-3 to the genus Pullulanibacillus . Physiological and biochemical tests along with fatty acid composition allowed differentiation of strains UG-2T and UG-3 from P. naganoensis . It is suggested that strains UG-2T and UG-3 represent a novel species, for which the name Pullulanibacillus uraniitolerans is proposed; the type strain is UG-2T ( = DSM 19429T = LMG 24205T). An emended description of the genus Pullulanibacillus is also proposed.
A novel Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain X4BT, was isolated from soil around the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain X4BT were motile rods and formed ellipsoidal endospores at a terminal or subterminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain X4BT was a strictly aerobic bacterium, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5–22.5 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 7.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X4BT is a member of the family Bacillaceae , constituting a novel phyletic lineage within this family. Highest sequence similarities were obtained with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the type strains of Sediminibacillus albus (96.0 %), Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis (95.9 %), Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis (95.8 %) and Sediminibacillus halophilus (95.7 %), respectively. The DNA G+C content of this novel isolate was 35.2 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain X4BT were anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 and its polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two aminolipids, an aminophospholipid and an unknown phospholipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (89 %) and MK-6 (11 %). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in combination with chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain X4BT represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae , order Bacillales for which the name Saliterribacillus persicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species (Saliterribacillus persicus) is X4BT ( = IBRC-M 10629T = KCTC 13827T).