A novel moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain K170T, was isolated from Keke Salt Lake in Qinghai, China. The strain grew with 0–22 % (w/v) NaCl, at 4–50 °C and at pH 6–11, with optimum growth in 3 % (w/v) NaCl, at 40 °C and at pH 8. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified phospholipids, aminolipids and glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 35.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain K170T was a member of the genus Gracilibacillus . High levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were found between strain K170T and Gracilibacillus boraciitolerans DSM 17256T (97.3 %) and Gracilibacillus thailandensis JCM 15569T (97.1 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain K170T and the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Gracilibacillus were below 97 %. The DNA–DNA hybridization values of strain K170T with G. boraciitolerans DSM 17256T and G. thailandensis JCM 15569T were 21.9 % and 34.3 %, respectively. On the basis of these results, strain K170T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gracilibacillus , for which the name Gracilibacillus kekensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is K170T ( = CGMCC 1.10681T = DSM 23178T).
Three Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rods, designated WCC 4582T, WCC 4581 and WCC 4583, were isolated from two different food sources and a pharmaceuticals production site. The three isolates were highly similar in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (100 % similarity) and groEL sequences (99.2–100 % similarity), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic fingerprints and other features tested. The isolates were most closely related to Bacillus horneckiae ; the isolates and the type strain of B. horneckiae shared 97.6 % and 89.6 % 16S rRNA gene and groEL sequence similarities, respectively. The organisms grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of WCC 4582T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (A1γ) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. DNA–DNA relatedness between strain WCC 4582T and B. horneckiae NRRL B-59162T was 17 %. The three isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus kochii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WCC 4582T ( = DSM 23667T = CCUG 59877T = LMG 25855T).
A Gram-staining-positive, non-motile and non-spore-forming lactic acid bacterium, designated strain M2T, was isolated from fermented brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida) kimchi in South Korea. Cells of the isolate were facultatively anaerobic ovoids and showed catalase- and oxidase-negative reactions. Growth of strain M2T was observed at 4–35 °C and at pH 5.0–9.0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M2T belonged to the genus Leuconostoc and was most closely related to Leuconostoc inhae IH003T, Leuconostoc kimchii IH25T, Leuconostoc gasicomitatum LMG 18811T, Leuconostoc gelidum DSM 5578T, Leuconostoc palmae TMW2.694T and Leuconostoc holzapfelii BFE 7000T with 98.9 %, 98.8 %, 98.8 %, 98.7 %, 98.5 % and 98.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain M2T and Leuconostoc inhae KACC 12281T, Leuconostoc kimchii IH25T, Leuconostoc gelidum KACC 12256T, Leuconostoc gasicomitatum KACC 13854T, Leuconostoc palmae DSM 21144T and Leuconostoc holzapfelii DSM 21478T were 13.8±3.2 %, 14.3±3.4 %, 9.9±1.0 %, 13.2±0.8 %, 22.4±4.9 % and 16.2±4.6 %, respectively, which allowed differentiation of strain M2T from the closely related species of the genus Leuconostoc . On the basis of phenotypic and molecular properties, strain M2T represents a novel species in the genus Leuconostoc , for which the name Leuconostoc miyukkimchii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M2T ( = KACC 15353T = JCM 17445T).
‘Bacillus macroides’ ATCC 12905T ( = DSM 54T = LMG 18474T), isolated in 1947 from cow dung, was not included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and so it lost standing in bacteriological nomenclature. Reinvestigation of the strain, including DNA–DNA relatedness experiments, revealed that ‘Bacillus macroides’ is genomically distinct from its closest relatives Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus , Lysinibacillus boronitolerans and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with pairwise similarity values of 99.2, 98.8 and 98.5 %, respectively, with the type strains of these species). Further analysis showed that ‘Bacillus macroides’ shares the A4α l-Lys–d-Asp peptidoglycan type with other members of the genus Lysinibacillus and can thus be attributed to this genus. These results, combined with additional phenotypic data, justify the description of strain LMG 18474T ( = DSM 54T = ATCC 12905T) as Lysinibacillus macroides sp. nov., nom. rev.
Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated SU 18T and SU 83, were isolated from silage prepared with Sudan grass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.]. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. The isolates exhibited ≥93.5 % DNA–DNA relatedness to each other and shared the same phenotypic characteristics, which indicated that they belonged to a single species. The DNA G+C content was 58.5–59.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were placed in the genus Lactobacillus . Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Lactobacillus manihotivorans JCM 12514T and Lactobacillus camelliae JCM 13995T (95.9 and 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with strain SU 18T). Ribotyping revealed that strain SU 18T was well separated from L. manihotivorans JCM 12514T and L. camelliae JCM 13995T. Strain SU 18T exhibited ≤23.7 % DNA–DNA relatedness with its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The isolates represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus , for which the name Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SU 18T ( = JCM 17158T = CGMCC 1.10801T). The description of the genus Lactobacillus is also amended.