A novel yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated ARSA-19T, was isolated from a freshwater reservoir in Cheonan, Korea. Cells were Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic and positive for catalase and oxidase. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ARSA-19T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and was related to Flavobacterium macrobrachii an-8T (96.5 % sequence similarity), F. koreense KACC 14969T (96.2 %), F. chungnamense KACC 14971T (96.1 %), F. cheonanense KACC 14972T (96.4 %) and F. aquatile ATCC 11947T (95.6 %). The isolate contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 (21.8 %), iso-C16 : 0 3-OH (10.4 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (9.3 %), summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c; 8.2 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (7.7 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (7.3 %) as the major fatty acids. The polar lipids of strain ARSA-19T were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown aminolipids and two unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain ARSA-19T was 33.3 mol%. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and on the phylogenetic evidence presented, strain ARSA-19T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium dankookense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ARSA-19T ( = KCTC 23179T = JCM 17065T = KACC 14968T). Emended descriptions of Flavobacterium cheonanense , Flavobacterium chungnamense , Flavobacterium koreense and Flavobacterium aquatile are also proposed.
A novel obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped mesophilic bacterium, which stained Gram-positive but showed the typical cell wall structure of Gram-negative bacteria, was isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters in Tunisia. The strain, designated LIND7HT, grew at 20–45 °C (optimum 35–40 °C) and at pH 5.0–8.5 (optimum pH 6.5–7.5). It did not require NaCl for growth, but was able to grow in the presence of up to 2 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain LIND7HT used cellobiose, glucose, lactose, mannose, maltose, peptone, rhamnose, raffinose, sucrose and xylose as electron donors. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were lactate, acetate, butyrate and isobutyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, C17 : 0 2-OH and a summed feature consisting of C18 : 2ω6,9c and/or anteiso-C18 : 0, and the major menaquinones were MK-9, MK-9(H2) and MK-10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.4 mol%. Although the closest phylogenetic relatives of strain LIND7HT were Parabacteroides merdae , Parabacteroides goldsteinii and Parabacteroides gordonii , analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence showed that strain LIND7HT was not a member of the genus Parabacteroides . On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic properties, strain LIND7HT ( = CCUG 60892T = DSM 23697T = JCM 16313T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species in a new genus within the family Porphyromonadaceae , Macellibacteroides fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov.