A Micromonospora -like strain, RtIII47T, was isolated from a mangrove swamp in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain had a close association with the genus Verrucosispora and shared the highest sequence similarity with Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013T (98.0 %). The strain also showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Micromonospora olivasterospora DSM 43868T (97.9 %), Plantactinospora mayteni YIM 61359T (97.9 %), Salinispora tropica CNB-440T (97.8 %), Micromonospora peucetia DSM 43363T (97.7 %), Micromonospora auratinigra TT1-11T (97.7 %), Verrucosispora sediminis CGMCC 4.3550T (97.6 %) and Salinispora arenicola CNH-643T (97.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence supported the conclusion that strain RtIII47T should be assigned to the genus Verrucosispora . DNA–DNA relatedness between strain RtIII47T and the most closely related type strain, V. lutea YIM 013T, was less than 40 %. Chemotaxonomic results confirmed the taxonomic position of the isolate in the genus Verrucosispora , and revealed differences at the species level in polar lipids, whole-cell sugars and DNA G+C content. A combination of physiological and biochemical tests also distinguished this strain from other Verrucosispora species. Based on genotypic and phenotypic observations, strain RtIII47T ( = CGMCC 4.5826T = NBRC 106684T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Verrucosispora qiuiae sp. nov. An emended description of the genus Verrucosispora is also provided.
A straight-chain, spore-forming actinobacterium, strain YIM 120770T, was isolated from soil. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that the isolate represents a distinct cluster within the clade comprising the genus Nonomuraea and is related most closely to Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (96.5 % similarity). Cells of strain YIM 120770T grew in the presence of 0–3 % (w/v) NaCl, at 15–37 °C and at pH 7.0–8.0. The diagnostic amino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid, cell hydrolysates contained madurose, glucose, mannose, ribose and galactose, the predominant cellular fatty acids were 10-methyl C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%, data consistent with affiliation of strain YIM 120770T to the genus Nonomuraea . Strain YIM 120770T shared low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (<97 %) with the type strains of recognized species of the genus Nonomuraea and could be differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relative based on phenotypic characteristics. These results suggested that strain YIM 120770T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea , for which the name Nonomuraea soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 120770T ( = DSM 45533T = JCM 17347T).
An actinobacterial strain, SCSIO 10427T, was isolated from a gorgonian coral sample collected from Weizhou Island, Guangxi province, China, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have a range of chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardiopsis . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain SCSIO 10427T and type strains of other recognized members of the genus Nocardiopsis was lower than 98.4 %. Furthermore, phenotypic characteristics revealed that the strain differed from the currently recognized species of the genus Nocardiopsis . Therefore, strain SCSIO 10427T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis , for which the name Nocardiopsis coralliicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO 10427T ( = CCTCC AA 2011010T = DSM 45611T).
A novel aerobic actinobacterium, strain EUM 273T, was isolated from the root of a Grey Box tree (Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden). Cells were Gram-staining-positive with well-developed substrate mycelia which were non-motile and rod-like, with coccoid elements. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the isolate as a member of the family Promicromonosporaceae that was most closely related to Promicromonospora xylanilytica YIM 61515T (98.2 %) and Promicromonospora vindobonensis V45T (98 %). Chemotaxonomic data including cell wall components, major menaquinone and major fatty acids confirmed the affiliation of strain EUM 273T to the genus Promicromonospora . The results of the phylogenetic analysis, including physiological and biochemical studies in combination with DNA–DNA hybridization, allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain EUM 273T from the closest related species with validly published names. The name proposed for the novel species is Promicromonospora endophytica sp. nov. The type strain is EUM 273T ( = DSM 23716T = NRRL B-24816T).
During screening for 4-chlorophenol-degrading micro-organisms in activated sludge from industrial wastewater treatment, a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated 2C6-43T, was isolated and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2C6-43T belongs to the family Bogoriellaceae , class Actinobacteria , and is related most closely to Georgenia soli CC-NMPT-T3T (98.8 % sequence similarity), Georgenia muralis 1A-CT (97.6 %), Georgenia thermotolerans TT02-04T (96.8 %), Georgenia ruanii YIM 004T (96.6 %) and Georgenia halophila YIM 93316T (96.0 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 2C6-43T was 66.2 mol%. Sugars from whole-cell hydrolysates found in strain 2C6-43T were rhamnose, ribose and galactose. The menaquinone MK-8(H4) was detected as the predominant quinone. Polar lipid analysis of 2C6-43T revealed diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. An aromatic compound ring cleavage enzyme of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was detected but catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was not detected in 2C6-43T. A fatty acid profile with anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major components supported the affiliation of strain 2C6-43T to the genus Georgenia . However, the DNA–DNA relatedness between strain 2C6-43T and the type strains of five species of the genus Georgenia ranged from 17 to 40 %, clearly showing that the isolate constitutes a new genospecies. Strain 2C6-43T could be clearly differentiated from its phylogenetic neighbours on the basis of some phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic features. Therefore, strain 2C6-43T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Georgenia , for which the name Georgenia daeguensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C6-43T ( = KCTC 19801T = JCM 17459T).