The majority of environmental micro-organisms identified with the rRNA approach have never been visualized. Thus, their reliable classification and taxonomic assignment is often difficult or even impossible. In our preliminary 18S rRNA gene sequencing work from the world’s largest anoxic marine environment, the Cariaco Basin (Caribbean Sea, Venezuela), we detected a ciliate clade, designated previously as CAR_H [Stoeck, S., Taylor, G. T. & Epstein, S. S. (2003). Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 5656–5663]. Here, we combine the traditional rRNA detection method of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confirm the phylogenetic separation of the CAR_H sequences from all other ciliate classes by showing an outstanding morphological feature of this group: a unique, archway-shaped kinety surrounding the oral apparatus and extending to the posterior body end in CAR_H cells. Based on this specific feature and the molecular phylogenies, we propose a novel ciliate class, Cariacotrichea nov. cl.
Three apiculate yeast strains, EJ7M09T, GJ5M15 and GJ15M04, isolated from mushrooms in Taiwan were found to represent a novel species of the genus Kloeckera. The phylogenetically closest relative of this novel species is Hanseniaspora occidentalis, but the type strain of H. occidentalis differed by 4.6 % divergence (25 substitutions; 5 gaps) in the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene. This difference clearly suggests that the three strains represent a distinct species. As none of the strains that were examined in this study produced ascospores or exhibited conjugation on common sporulation medium either alone or in a pairwise mixture, this species could be considered as an anamorphic member of the genus Hanseniaspora, and a novel species, Kloeckera taiwanica sp. nov., is proposed, with EJ7M09T ( = BCRC 23182T = CBS 11434T) as the type strain.
Five strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Amazonian forest site in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and is related to Candida coipomoensis, Candida lignicola and Candida queiroziae. The novel species Candida amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. amazonensis sp. nov. is UFMG-HMD-26.3T ( = CBS 12363T = NRRL Y-48762T).