Strains of the recently proposed species Bacteroides chinchillae share more than 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Bacteroides sartorii although these two species do not appear to be similar from their published descriptions. The aim of this study was to perform phenotypic and genetic analyses of both species to clarify their taxonomic position. B. chinchillae JCM 16497T exhibited high hsp60 gene sequence similarity with B. sartorii JCM 17136T (100 %) as well as B. chinchillae JCM 16498 (100 %). The hsp60 gene sequence analysis and levels of DNA–DNA relatedness observed demonstrated B. sartorii JCM 17136T, B. chinchillae JCM 16497T, and B. chinchillae JCM 16498 are members of a single species. Based on these data, we propose Bacteroides chinchillae as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacteroides sartorii . An emended description of B. sartorii is provided.
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-spore-forming, motile (by gliding) bacterial strain, designated M-M6T, was isolated from marine sand of Geoje island, Korea. Strain M-M6T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain M-M6T fell within the clade comprising Cellulophaga species, forming a coherent cluster with Cellulophaga lytica ATCC 23178T and Cellulophaga fucicola NN015860T, with which it shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.1 and 98.2 %, respectively. Sequence similarities between strain M-M6T and the type strains of other recognized Cellulophaga species were in the range 92.4–93.8 %. Strain M-M6T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids detected in strain M-M6T and the type strains of C. lytica and C. fucicola were two unidentified lipids, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content of strain M-M6T was 35.4 mol%. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain M-M6T and C. lytica JCM 8516T and C. fucicola JCM 21778T were 33 and 35 %, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness distinguished strain M-M6T from all recognized Cellulophaga species. On the basis of the data presented, strain M-M6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Cellulophaga , for which the name Cellulophaga geojensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M-M6T ( = KCTC 23498T = CCUG 60801T).
Three Gram-staining-negative non-endospore-forming strains were isolated from farmed fish in Chile: one (LM-09-FpT) from a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the others (LM-19-FpT and LM-20-Fp) from two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that all three isolates belonged to the genus Flavobacterium . In these analyses, strain LM-09-FpT appeared most closely related to the type strains of Flavobacterium chungangense (98.5 % sequence similarity), Flavobacterium glaciei (98.2 %), Flavobacterium aquidurense (97.6 %), Flavobacterium saccharophilum (97.6 %) and Flavobacterium hercynium (97.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains LM-19-FpT and LM-20-Fp were found to be identical and most similar to the corresponding sequences of the type strains of Flavobacterium aquidurense (98.6 %), Flavobacterium frigidimaris (98.5 %), Flavobacterium hercynium (97.9 %), Flavobacterium saccharophilum (97.7 %) and Flavobacterium pectinovorum (97.7 %). For each of the three novel strains, menaquinone (MK-6) was the predominant respiratory quinone and the major compounds in the polar lipid profile were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, phosphatidylserine and two or three unknown lipids. The fatty acid profile of each strain, which comprised major amounts of iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) as well as smaller amounts of various hydroxylated fatty acids (e.g. iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 3-OH and C15 : 0 3-OH), indicated that each belonged to the genus Flavobacterium . Based on their physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of DNA–DNA hybridizations, which showed relatively low levels of relatedness between the novel strains and the most closely related Flavobacterium species, strain LM-09-FpT ( = LMG 26360T = CCM 7940T) represents a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium chilense sp. nov. is proposed, and strains LM-19-FpT ( = LMG 26359T = CCM 7939T) and LM-20-Fp ( = LMG 26331) represent a second novel species within the same genus, for which the name Flavobacterium araucananum sp. nov. is proposed.