Although four strains of bacteria isolated from sunki, a traditional Japanese, non-salted pickle, were initially identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii , the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the strains did not match those of any of the four recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii . Together, the results of phenotypic characterization, DNA–DNA hybridizations (in which the relatedness values between the novel strains and type strains of the recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii were all >88.7 %) and 16S rRNA gene sequence, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and whole-cell MALDI-TOF/MS spectral pattern analyses indicated that the four novel strains represented a single, novel subspecies, for which the name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. sunkii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIT 11221T ( = JCM 17838T = DSM 24966T).
Two novel obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, saccharolytic and non-proteolytic spore-forming bacilli (strains CD3 : 22T and N1T) are described. Strain CD3 : 22T was isolated from a biopsy of the small intestine of a child with coeliac disease, and strain N1T from the saliva of a healthy young man. The cells of both strains were observed to be filamentous, approximately 5 to >20 µm long, some of them curving and with swellings. The novel organisms produced H2S, NH3, butyric acid and acetic acid as major metabolic end products. Phylogenetic analyses, based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealed close relationships (98 % sequence similarity) between the two isolates, as well as the type strain of Eubacterium saburreum and four other Lachnospiraceae bacterium-/ E. saburreum -like organisms. This group of bacteria were clearly different from any of the 19 known genera in the family Lachnospiraceae . While Eubacterium species are reported to be non-spore-forming, reanalysis of E. saburreum CCUG 28089T confirmed that the bacterium is indeed able to form spores. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phenotypic and biochemical properties, strains CD3 : 22T and N1T represent novel species of a new and distinct genus, named Lachnoanaerobaculum gen. nov., in the family Lachnospiraceae [within the order Clostridiales , class Clostridia , phylum Firmicutes ]. Strain CD3 : 22T ( = CCUG 58757T = DSM 23576T) is the type strain of the type species, Lachnoanaerobaculum umeaense gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed new genus. Strain N1T ( = CCUG 60305T = DSM 24553T) is the type strain of Lachnoanaerobaculum orale sp. nov. Moreover, Eubacterium saburreum is reclassified as Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum comb. nov. (type strain CCUG 28089T = ATCC 33271T = CIP 105341T = DSM 3986T = JCM 11021T = VPI 11763T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain P4BT, was isolated from water of the hypersaline Aran-Bidgol lake in Iran and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain P4BT were non-motile rods producing ellipsoidal endospores at a central position in non-swollen sporangia. Strain P4BT was strictly aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. It was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5–12.5 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 5–7.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain P4BT was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and shared highest similarity with Bacillus persepolensis HS136T (97.1 %) and Bacillus salarius BH169T (95.1 %). However, it shared only 91.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10T, indicating that strain P4BT might not be a member of the genus Bacillus . The DNA G+C content of this new isolate was 38.9 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of relatedness between strain P4BT and B. persepolensis HS136T (6 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain P4BT were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, as for B. persepolensis HS136T but in contrast to B. salarius DSM 16461T and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10T. Its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, an aminoglycolipid and an unknown phospholipid. This polar lipid profile was similar to that obtained for B. persepolensis DSM 21632T but different from those of B. salarius DSM 16461T and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10T. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (88 %) and MK-8 (2 %). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All these features indicate placement of strain P4BT within the Firmicutes , closely related to B. persepolensis but with features clearly distinct from those of the genus Bacillus and other related genera. On the basis of these data, strain P4BT is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Alteribacillus bidgolensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alteribacillus bidgolensis is P4BT ( = CCM 7963T = CECT 7998T = DSM 25260T = IBRC-M 10614T = KCTC 13821T). It is also suggested to transfer B. persepolensis to this new genus, as Alteribacillus persepolensis comb. nov. The type strain of Alteribacillus persepolensis is HS136T ( = CCM 7595T = DSM 21632T = JCM 15720T = LMG 25222T).